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The effects of tin (Sn) additions on the growth of spinach plants

Müller FL1,2, LF Cyster1, LM Raitt1, J Aalbers1

Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
Agricultural Research Council - Animal Production Institute. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

* Corresponding Author:Address Correspondence to: Francuois L. Müller, e-mail:

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2015, 84(2), 461-465.


An increase in bioavailable tin in the environment could result in bioaccumulation thereof in agricultural crops, and therefore, have adverse health consequences on humans that eat these crops. The aims of the current study were thus to assess the uptake of Sn by spinach plants, and the subsequent effects this will have on the uptake of Na, Zn, K, Ca, and Mg as well as the growth of spinach plants. Spinach plants were grown in sand culture and received tin at concentrations of 0.02, 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/L along with a nutrient solution. The uptake of tin at detectible concentrations only occurred at the highest concentrations (2 and 20 mg/L), and it was mostly retained in the roots of the plants. Tin additions also resulted in no visual toxicity symptoms, and might be beneficial to biomass production. Further field trials are needed to ensure that these experimental results remain true under field conditions.


Cite This Article

FL, M., Cyster, L., Raitt, L., Aalbers, J. (2015). The effects of tin (Sn) additions on the growth of spinach plants. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 84(2), 461–465.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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