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Aluminum Toxicity: A Case Study on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

Munir Ozturk1,*, Mert Metin2, Volkan Altay3, Tomonori Kawano2, Alvina Gul4, Bengu Turkyilmaz Unal5,*, Dilek Unal6, Rouf Ahmad Bhat7, Moonisa Aslam Dervash8, Kristina Toderich9, Esra Koc10, Pedro Garcia Caparros11, Andleeb Shahzadi12

1 Department of Botany and Centre for Environmental Studies, Ege University, Izmir, 35100, Turkiye
2 Graduate School of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 808-0135, Japan
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, 31060, Turkiye
4 Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
5 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Nigde, 51240, Turkiye
6 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Bilecik Seyh Edebali, Bilecik, 11230, Turkiye
7 Department of Environmental Science, Sri Pratap College, Cluster University Srinagar, Kashmir, 190008, India
8 Division of Environmental Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir, 190025, India
9 International Platform for Dryland Research and Education, Tottori University, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan
10 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Ankara, 06100, Turkiye
11 Department of Superior School Engineering, University of Almería, Almería, 04120, Spain
12 Department of Medical Pharmacology, Cerrahpasa Medicine Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, 34096, Turkiye

* Corresponding Authors: Munir Ozturk. Email: email; Bengu Turkyilmaz Unal. Email: email

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2023, 92(1), 165-192.


Aluminum is an abundant metal in the earth’s crust that turns out to be toxic in acidic environments. Many plants are affected by the presence of aluminum at the whole plant level, at the organ level, and at the cellular level. Tobacco as a cash crop (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a widely cultivated plant worldwide and is also a good model organism for research. Although there are many articles on Al-phytotoxicity in the literature, reviews on a single species that are economically and scientifically important are limited. In this article, we not only provide the biology associated with tobacco Al-toxicity, but also some essential information regarding the effects of this metal on other plant species (even animals). This review provides information on aluminum localization and uptake process by different staining techniques, as well as the effects of its toxicity at different compartment levels and the physiological consequences derived from them. In addition, molecular studies in recent years have reported specific responses to Al toxicity, such as overexpression of various protective proteins. Besides, this review discusses data on various organelle-based responses, cell death, and other mechanisms, data on tobacco plants and other kingdoms relevant to these studies.


Cite This Article

Ozturk, M., Metin, M., Altay, V., Kawano, T., Gul, A. et al. (2023). Aluminum Toxicity: A Case Study on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 92(1), 165–192.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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