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Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics and Response Patterns of Salinity Stress Responsive Genes (SSRGs) in Wild Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.)

Yurong Jiang1, Muhammad Yasir1, Yuefen Cao1, Lejia Hu1, Tongli Yan1, Shuijin Zhu2,*, Guoquan Lu1,*

1 The Key Laboratory for Quality Improvement of Agricultural Products of Zhejiang Province, College of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, 311300, China
2 College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China

* Corresponding Authors: Shuijin Zhu. Email: email; Guoquan Lu. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2023, 92(2), 399-410.


Cultivating salt-tolerant crops is a feasible way to effectively utilize saline-alkali land and solve the problem of underutilization of saline soils. Quinoa, a protein-comprehensive cereal in the plant kingdom, is an exceptional crop in terms of salt stress tolerance level. It seems an excellent model for the exploration of salt-tolerance mechanisms and cultivation of salt-tolerant germplasms. In this study, the seeds and seedlings of the quinoa cultivar Shelly were treated with different concentrations of NaCl solution. The physiological, biochemical characteristics and agronomic traits were investigated, and the response patterns of three salt stress-responsive genes (SSRGs) in quinoa were determined by real-time PCR. The optimum level of stress tolerance of quinoa cultivar Shelly was found in the range of 250–350 mM concentration of NaCl. Salt stress significantly induced expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and particularly betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). BADH was discovered to be more sensitive to salt stress and played an important role in the salt stress tolerance of quinoa seedlings, particularly at high NaCl concentrations, as it displayed upregulation until 24 h under 100 mM salt treatment. Moreover, it showed upregulation until 12 h under 250 mM salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that BADH played an essential role in the salt-tolerance mechanism of quinoa. Based on the expression level and prompt response induced by NaCl, we suggest that the BADH can be considered as a molecular marker for screening salt-tolerant quinoa germplasm at the early stages of crop development. Salt treatment at different plant ontogeny or at different concentrations had a significant impact on quinoa growth. Therefore, an appropriate treatment approach needs to be chosen rationally in the process of screening salt-tolerant quinoa germplasm, which is useful to the utilization of saline soils. Our study provides a fundamental information to deepen knowledge of the salt tolerance mechanism of quinoa for the development of salt-tolerant germplasm in crop breeding programs.


Cite This Article

Jiang, Y., Yasir, M., Cao, Y., Hu, L., Yan, T. et al. (2023). Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics and Response Patterns of Salinity Stress Responsive Genes (SSRGs) in Wild Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.). Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 92(2), 399–410.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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