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  • Open Access


    Hybrid Dynamic Optimization for Multilevel Security System in Disseminating Confidential Information

    Shahina Anwarul1, Sunil Kumar2, Ashok Bhansali3, Hammam Alshazly4,*, Hany S. Hussein5,6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.3, pp. 3145-3163, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.041061

    Abstract Security systems are the need of the hour to protect data from unauthorized access. The dissemination of confidential information over the public network requires a high level of security. The security approach such as steganography ensures confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation. Steganography helps in hiding the secret data inside the cover media so that the attacker can be confused during the transmission process of secret data between sender and receiver. Therefore, we present an efficient hybrid security model that provides multifold security assurance. To this end, a rectified Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is proposed to overcome the problems existing… More >

  • Open Access


    Improving Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through Nitrogen Application under Semiarid Conditions

    Muhammad Rafiq1, Muhammad Saqib1,*, Husnain Jawad1, Talha Javed2, Sadam Hussain3,*, Muhammad Arif1, Baber Ali4, Muhammad Sultan Ali Bazmi5, Ghulam Abbas1, Marjan Aziz6, Mohammad Khalid Al-Sadoon7, Aneela Gulnaz8, Sobhi F. Lamlom9, Muhammad Azeem Sabir10, Jameel Akhtar6

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.4, pp. 1001-1017, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.025781


    Nitrogen (N), the building block of plant proteins and enzymes, is an essential macronutrient for plant functions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of different N application rates (28, 57, 85, 114, 142, 171, and 200 kg ha−1) on the performance of spring wheat (cv. Ujala-2016) during the 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 growing seasons. A control without N application was kept for comparison. Two years mean data showed optimum seed yield (5,461.3 kg ha−1) for N-application at 142 kg ha−1 whereas application of lower and higher rates of N did not result in significant and economically higher seed… More >

  • Open Access


    Implementation of VLSI on Signal Processing-Based Digital Architecture Using AES Algorithm

    Mohanapriya Marimuthu1, Santhosh Rajendran2, Reshma Radhakrishnan2, Kalpana Rengarajan3, Shahzada Khurram4, Shafiq Ahmad5, Abdelaty Edrees Sayed5, Muhammad Shafiq6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 4729-4745, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033020

    Abstract Continuous improvements in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technology and design software have significantly broadened the scope of digital signal processing (DSP) applications. The use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and programmable digital signal processors for many DSP applications have changed, even though new system implementations based on reconfigurable computing are becoming more complex. Adaptable platforms that combine hardware and software programmability efficiency are rapidly maturing with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and sophisticated computerized design techniques, which are much needed in today’s modern world. New research and commercial efforts to sustain power optimization, cost savings, and improved runtime effectiveness have been initiated… More >

  • Open Access


    Salt Stress Affects the Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Altering the Antioxidant Machinery and Expression of Hormones and Stress-Specific Genes

    Shahid Hussain1, Rui Zhang1, Shuli Liu1, Yang Wang1, Irshad Ahmad2, Yinglong Chen1, Hongyan Hou3, Qigen Dai1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.3, pp. 861-881, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.025487


    Understanding physiological responses in saline agriculture may facilitate wheat breeding programs. Based on a screening test, the Ningmai-14 (NM-14) and Yangmai-23 (YM-23) wheat cultivars were selected for further experiments to understand the underlying salinity tolerance mechanism. This study investigated the effects of five salinity levels such as Control (CK) = 0 (without NaCl stress), S1 = 0.20%, S2 = 0.25%, S3 = 0.30% and S4 = 0.35% of NaCl concentrations of soil on wheat plants. The results showed that increased salinity concentration reduced the growth and yield of wheat cultivars (NM-14 and YM-23). However, YM-23 (12.7%) yielded more than NM-14… More >

  • Open Access


    Proposed Privacy Preservation Technique for Color Medical Images

    Walid El-Shafai1,2, Hayam A. Abd El-Hameed3, Noha A. El-Hag4, Ashraf A. M. Khalaf3, Naglaa F. Soliman5, Hussah Nasser AlEisa6,*, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie1

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.1, pp. 719-732, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.031079

    Abstract Nowadays, the security of images or information is very important. This paper introduces a proposed hybrid watermarking and encryption technique for increasing medical image security. First, the secret medical image is encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. Then, the secret report of the patient is embedded into the encrypted secret medical image with the Least Significant Bit (LSB) watermarking algorithm. After that, the encrypted secret medical image with the secret report is concealed in a cover medical image, using Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation (KMCG) algorithm. Afterwards, the stego-image obtained is split into 16 parts. Finally, it is sent to… More >

  • Open Access


    Split-n-Swap: A New Modification of the Twofish Block Cipher Algorithm

    Awny Sayed1,2, Maha Mahrous3, Enas Elgeldawi1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1723-1734, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032838

    Abstract Securing digital data from unauthorized access throughout its entire lifecycle has been always a critical concern. A robust data security system should protect the information assets of any organization against cybercriminal activities. The Twofish algorithm is one of the well-known symmetric key block cipher cryptographic algorithms and has been known for its rapid convergence. But when it comes to security, it is not the preferred cryptographic algorithm to use compared to other algorithms that have shown better security. Many applications and social platforms have adopted other symmetric key block cipher cryptographic algorithms such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm… More >

  • Open Access


    Overexpression of Wheat TaELF3-1BL Delays Flowering in Arabidopsis

    Junsheng Sun#, Haozhen Zhang#, Mingxia Zhang, Sishen Li, Yanrong An*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.1, pp. 79-90, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022225

    Abstract EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), a light zeitnehmer (time-taker) gene, regulates circadian rhythm and photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis, rice, and barley. The three orthologs of ELF3 (TaELF3-1AL, TaELF3-1BL, and TaELF3-1DL) have been identified in wheat too, and one gene, TaELF3-1DL, has been associated with heading date. However, the basic characteristics of these three genes and the roles of the other two genes, TaELF3-1BL and, TaELF3-1AL, remain unknown. Therefore, the present study obtained the coding sequences of the three orthologs (TaELF3-1AL, TaELF3-1BL, and TaELF3-1DL) of ELF3 from bread wheat and characterized them and investigated the role of TaELF3-1BL in Arabidopsis. Protein sequence… More >

  • Open Access


    Exploration of Genetic Pattern of Phenological Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Drought Stress

    Iqra Ishaaq1, Muhammad Umer Farooq1,2,3,4,*, Syeda Anjum Tahira2, Rizwana Maqbool1, Celaleddin Barutçular3, Muhammad Yasir5, Saira Bano2, Zaid Ulhassan6, Ghassan Zahid7, Muhammad Ahsan Asghar8, Sajad Hussain9, Kocsy Gabor8, Ulkar Ibrahimova10,11, Jianqing Zhu4, Anshu Rastogi12,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2733-2758, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022094

    Abstract Drought is the major detrimental environmental factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The exploration of genetic patterns underlying drought tolerance is of great significance. Here we report the gene actions controlling the phenological traits using the line × tester model studying 27 crosses and 12 parents under normal irrigation and drought conditions. The results interpreted via multiple analysis (mean performance, correlations, principal component, genetic analysis, heterotic and heterobeltiotic potential) disclosed highly significant differences among germplasm. The phenological waxiness traits (glume, boom, and sheath) were strongly interlinked. Flag leaf area exhibits a positive association with peduncle and spike length under… More >

  • Open Access


    Generalization of Advanced Encryption Standard Based on Field of Any Characteristic

    Nabilah Abughazalah1, Majid Khan2,*, Noor Munir2, Ammar S. Alanazi3, Iqtadar Hussain4,5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 6121-6138, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.031417

    Abstract Nowadays most communications are done by utilizing digital transmission mechanisms. The security of this digital information transmitted through different communication systems is quite important. The secrecy of digital data is one of the burning topics of the digitally developed world. There exist many traditional algorithms in the literature to provide methods for robust communication. The most important and recent modern block cipher named the advanced encryption standard (AES) is one of the extensively utilized encryption schemes with binary based. AES is a succession of four fundamental steps: round key, sub-byte, shift row, and mix column. In this work, we will… More >

  • Open Access


    Role of Organic Amendments to Mitigate Cd Toxicity and Its Assimilation in Triticum aestivum L.

    Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir1, Sobia Aslam1, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan2, Allah Wasaya1,*, Muhammad Ateeq1, Muhammad Naeem Khan3, Sikander Khan Tanveer4, Walid Soufan5, Basharat Ali6, Allah Ditta7,8, Arpna Kumari9, Ayman EL Sabagh10,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.11, pp. 2491-2504, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022473

    Abstract In soil biota, higher and enduring concentration of heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is hazardous and associated with great loss in growth, yield, and quality parameters of most of the crop plants. Recently, in-situ applications of eco-friendly stabilizing agents in the form of organic modifications have been utilized to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd-toxicity. This controlled experiment was laid down to appraise the imprints of various applied organic amendments namely poultry manure (PM), farmyard manure (FYM), and sugarcane press mud (PS) to immobilize Cd in polluted soil. Moreover, phytoavailability of Cd in wheat was also accessed under an alkaline… More >

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