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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Towards Blockchain-Based Secure BGP Routing, Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Qiong Yang1, Li Ma1,2,*, Shanshan Tu1, Sami Ullah3, Muhammad Waqas4,5, Hisham Alasmary6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2035-2062, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049970

    Abstract Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standard inter-domain routing protocol for the Internet that conveys network layer reachability information and establishes routes to different destinations. The BGP protocol exhibits security design defects, such as an unconditional trust mechanism and the default acceptance of BGP route announcements from peers by BGP neighboring nodes, easily triggering prefix hijacking, path forgery, route leakage, and other BGP security threats. Meanwhile, the traditional BGP security mechanism, relying on a public key infrastructure, faces issues like a single point of failure and a single point of trust. The decentralization, anti-tampering, and More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    Inga Zotova1,*, Edgars Kirilovs1, Laura Ziemele2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 603-613, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.047607

    Abstract Nowadays buildings contain innovative materials, materials from local resources, production surpluses and rapidly renewable natural resources. Phase Change Materials (PCM) are one such group of novel materials which reduce building energy consumption. With the wider availability of microencapsulated PCM, there is an opportunity to develop a new type of insulating materials, combinate PCM with traditional insulation materials for latent heat energy storage. These materials are typically flammable and are located on the interior wall finishing yet there has been no detailed assessment of their fire performance. In this research work prototypes of low-density insulating boards… More > Graphic Abstract

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    HOT WATER COOLED HEAT SINKS FOR EFFICIENT DATA CENTER COOLING: TOWARDS ELECTRONIC COOLING WITH HIGH EXERGETIC UTILITY

    Peter Kastena, Severin Zimmermanna, Manish K. Tiwaria, Bruno Michelb, Dimos Poulikakosa,*

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 1-10, 2010, DOI:10.5098/hmt.v1.2.3006

    Abstract Electronic data center cooling using hot water is proposed for high system exergetic utility. The proof-of-principle is provided by numerically modeling a manifold micro-channel heat sink for cooling microprocessors of a data center. An easily achievable 0.5l/min per chip water flow, with 60°C inlet water temperature, is found sufficient to address the typical data center thermal loads. A maximum temperature difference of ~8°C was found between the solid and liquid, confirming small exergetic destruction due to heat transport across a temperature differential. The high water outlet temperature from the heat sink opens the possibility of More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    NFT Security Matrix: Towards Modeling NFT Ecosystem Threat

    Peng Liao1, Chaoge Liu2, Jie Yin1,3,*, Zhi Wang2, Xiang Cui2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.3, pp. 3255-3285, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.043855

    Abstract Digital assets have boomed over the past few years with the emergence of Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs). To be specific, the total trading volume of digital assets reached an astounding $55.5 billion in 2022. Nevertheless, numerous security concerns have been raised by the rapid expansion of the NFT ecosystem. NFT holders are exposed to a plethora of scams and traps, putting their digital assets at risk of being lost. However, academic research on NFT security is scarce, and the security issues have aroused rare attention. In this study, the NFT ecological process is comprehensively explored. This… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Towards Lessening Learners’ Aversive Emotions and Promoting Their Mental Health: Developing and Validating a Measurement of English Speaking Demotivation in the Chinese EFL Context

    Chili Li1, Xinxin Zhao2, Ziwen Pan3, Ting Yi4, Long Qian5,6,*

    International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 161-175, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ijmhp.2023.029896

    Abstract While a plethora of studies has been conducted to explore demotivation and its impact on mental health in second language (L2) education, scanty research focuses on demotivation in L2 speaking learning. Particularly, little research explores the measures to quantify L2 speaking demotivation. The present two-phase study attempts to develop and validate an English Speaking Demotivation Scale (ESDS). To this end, an independent sample of 207 Chinese tertiary learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) participated in the development phase, and another group of 188 Chinese EFL learners was recruited for the validation of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    BOUNDARY LAYER STAGNATION-POINT FLOW OF CASSON FLUID AND HEAT TRANSFER TOWARDS A SHRINKING/STRETCHING SHEET

    Krishnendu Bhattacharyya*

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 1-9, 2013, DOI:10.5098/hmt.v4.2.3003

    Abstract The steady boundary layer stagnation-point flow of Casson fluid and heat transfer towards a shrinking/stretching sheet is studied. Appropriate similarity transformations are employed to transform the governing partial differential equations into the self-similar ordinary differential equations and those are then solved numerically using very efficient shooting method. The numerical computations are carried out for several values of parameters involved (especially, velocity ratio parameter and Casson parameter) to know the possibility of similarity solution for the boundary layer stagnation-point flow. It is found that the range of velocity ratio parameter for which similarity solution exists is More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    MHD CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW TOWARDS A VERTICAL SURFACE IN A POROUS MEDIUM WITH RADIATION, CHEMICAL REACTION AND INTERNAL HEAT GENERATION

    Emmanuel Maurice Arthur*, Timothy Ayando, Yakubu Ibrahim Seini

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.6, pp. 1-10, 2015, DOI:10.5098/hmt.6.21

    Abstract The combined effects of chemical reaction and viscous dissipation on hydromagnetic mixed convective flow towards a vertical plate embedded in a highly porous medium with radiation and internal heat generation has been examined. The governing boundary layer equations have been transformed to a two-point boundary value problem using a local similarity approach and solved numerically using the Newton Raphson shooting method alongside the Fourth-order Runge - Kutta algorithm. The effects of various embedded parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration have been presented graphically whilst the skin friction coefficient and the rates of heat and More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mobile-Deep Based PCB Image Segmentation Algorithm Research

    Lisang Liu1, Chengyang Ke1,*, He Lin2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2443-2461, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042582

    Abstract Aiming at the problems of inaccurate edge segmentation, the hole phenomenon of segmenting large-scale targets, and the slow segmentation speed of printed circuit boards (PCB) in the image segmentation process, a PCB image segmentation model Mobile-Deep based on DeepLabv3+ semantic segmentation framework is proposed. Firstly, the DeepLabv3+ feature extraction network is replaced by the lightweight model MobileNetv2, which effectively reduces the number of model parameters; secondly, for the problem of positive and negative sample imbalance, a new loss function is composed of Focal Loss combined with Dice Loss to solve the category imbalance and improve… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Towards Cache-Assisted Hierarchical Detection for Real-Time Health Data Monitoring in IoHT

    Muhammad Tahir1,2,*, Mingchu Li1,2, Irfan Khan1,2, Salman A. Al Qahtani3, Rubia Fatima4, Javed Ali Khan5, Muhammad Shahid Anwar6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2529-2544, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042403

    Abstract Real-time health data monitoring is pivotal for bolstering road services’ safety, intelligence, and efficiency within the Internet of Health Things (IoHT) framework. Yet, delays in data retrieval can markedly hinder the efficacy of big data awareness detection systems. We advocate for a collaborative caching approach involving edge devices and cloud networks to combat this. This strategy is devised to streamline the data retrieval path, subsequently diminishing network strain. Crafting an adept cache processing scheme poses its own set of challenges, especially given the transient nature of monitoring data and the imperative for swift data transmission,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Molecular basis of COVID-19, ARDS and COVID-19-associated ARDS: Diagnosis pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies

    PRIYADHARSHINI THANJAVUR SRIRAMAMOORTHI1,2, GAYATHRI GOPAL1,2, SHIBI MURALIDAR1,2, SAI RAMANAN ESWARAN1,2, DANUSH NARAYAN PANNEERSELVAM1,2, BHUVANESWARAN MEIYANATHAN1,2, SRICHANDRASEKAR THUTHIKKADU INDHUPRAKASH1,2, SENTHIL VISAGA AMBI1,2,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.11, pp. 2335-2350, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.029379

    Abstract The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide and threatening people greatly. The routes by which SARS-CoV-2 causes lung injury have grown to be a major concern in the scientific community since patients with new Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have a high likelihood of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases. The mortality rate of COVID-19 has increased over the period due to rapid spread, and it becomes crucial to understand the disease epidemiology, pathogenic mechanisms, and suitable treatment strategies. ARDS is a respiratory disorder and is one of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Molecular basis of COVID-19, ARDS and COVID-19-associated ARDS: Diagnosis pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies

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