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    The role of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of class switch recombination


    BIOCELL, Vol.44, No.4, pp. 545-558, 2020, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2020.012740

    Abstract Antibody is an important part of adaptive immune system and is produced only by B cells. There are five main classes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, IgE) and some subclasses in antibodies. IgM and IgD are produced by mature naïve B cells. On the other hand, IgG, IgA and IgE are produced by activated antigen-specific B cells via class switch recombination (CSR). CSR is the irreversible DNA rearrangement from upstream to downstream classes in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Co-stimulations of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and cytokines are required for induction of CSR by activating several transcription factors. These signal transduction pathways involve… More >

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