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  • Open Access


    Chaperone-mediated autophagy targeting chimeras (CMATAC) for the degradation of ERα in breast cancer


    BIOCELL, Vol.44, No.4, pp. 591-595, 2020, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2020.011642

    Abstract Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) is overexpressed in over half of all breast cancers and is considered a valuable therapeutic target in ERα positive breast cancer. Here, we designed a membrane-permeant Chaperonemediated Autophagy Targeting Chimeras (CMATAC) peptide to knockdown endogenous ERα protein through chaperone-mediated autophagy. The peptide contains a cell membrane-penetrating peptide (TAT) that allows the peptide to by-pass the plasma membrane, an αI peptide as a protein-binding peptide (PBD) that binds specifically to ERα, and CMA-targeting peptide (CTM) that targeting chaperone-mediated autophagy. We validated that ERα targeting peptide was able to target and degrade ERα to reduce the viability of… More >

  • Open Access


    Functions of ULK1 in autophagy and non-autophagy pathways and its implications in human physiology and disease


    BIOCELL, Vol.44, No.4, pp. 535-543, 2020, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2020.09171

    Abstract ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1), a mammalian serine/threonine kinase, is a key component of autophagy initiation complex and helps to induce all types of autophagy. Canonical autophagy is a process in which, through the interactions of a series of autophagy-related proteins, damaged organelles or misfolded proteins are engulfed by autophagosomes and then merged with lysosomes to be degraded. Thus, canonical autophagy is an important constituent part of the cellular “quality control.” Besides, accumulating evidence indicates that ULK1 exerts autophagy-independent effects in a cell-specific manner. For example, ULK1 facilitates neurite elongation through the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking… More >

  • Open Access


    Anti-proliferative effects of a small molecule inhibitor of CDK AT7519 on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells through halting the transition of cells from G2/M phase of the cell cycle


    BIOCELL, Vol.44, No.2, pp. 183-192, 2020, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2020.08880

    Abstract Pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has mostly been studied with regard to the oncogenic role of BCR/ABL fusion; however, recent disclosures have declared that the challenges with the treatment of CML patients would not be resolved until the role of other aberrancies is ignored. Given the involvement of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in the pathogenesis of CML, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a multi-CDK inhibitor AT7519 on BCR/ABL-harboring CML-derived K562 cells. Our results showed that AT7519 effectively reduced the survival of K562 and induced its anti-proliferative effect through the induction of G2/M arrest due to elevated… More >

  • Open Access


    p53 siRNA promotes autophagy of U2OS cells through its target gene Rap2B

    Heya QIAN1,§, Yan YAN2,§, Zhengjie SHEN1, Lixian XU1, Yun ZUO1, Tao ZHU3,*, Yanan CHEN1,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.43, No.4, pp. 321-326, 2019, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2019.07992

    Abstract The present study aims to explore the effects of p53 and its target gene Rap2B on the autophagy of U2OS cells. U2OS cells were treated with siRNA against p53, Rap2B, and PLCε. Relative expressions of p53, Rap2B, and PLCε were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Levels of IP3 in the cells were determined using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Levels of Ca2+ were detected using Flow cytometry. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the autophagy of cells. Knockdown of p53 significantly decreased the expressions of Rap2B protein. Additionally, knockdown of p53 significantly decreased the mRNA… More >

  • Open Access


    Influence of estradiol analogue on cell growth, morphology and death in esophageal carcinoma cells


    BIOCELL, Vol.34, No.3, pp. 113-120, 2010, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2010.34.113

    Abstract 2-Methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate is a bis-sulphamoylated derivative of the naturally occurring 17-beta-estradiol metabolite namely 2-methoxyestradiol. 2-Methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate is regarded as a potential anticancer drug with increased antiproliferative activity when compared to 2-methoxyestradiol. The aim of this pilot in vitro study was to determine the influence of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate on cell growth, morphology and possible induction of certain types of cell death in the SNO esophageal carcinoma cell line. A dose-dependent study (0.2-1.0μM) was conducted with an exposure time of 24 hours. Data revealed that 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate reduced cell numbers statistically significantly to 74% after exposure to 0.4μM of the drug. Morphological studies including light microscopy… More >

  • Open Access


    In vitro effects of 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate on cell growth, morphology and cell cycle dynamics in the MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line


    BIOCELL, Vol.34, No.2, pp. 71-80, 2010, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2010.34.071

    Abstract In the search for new and improved anticancer therapies, researchers have identified several potentially useful compounds. One of these agents is 2-methoxyestradiol-bis-sulphamate (2ME-BM), a sulphamoylated derivative of 2-methoxyestradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2ME-BM’s in vitro efficacy as antiproliferative agent in the MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Light- and fluorescent microscopy showed decreased cell density, increased apoptotic characteristics and significant ultrastructural aberrations indicative of autophagic cell death after 24 hours of exposure at a concentration of 0.4μM. In addition, mitotic indices revealed that 2ME-BM induces a G2M block. The latter was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses where… More >

  • Open Access


    Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death mediators


    BIOCELL, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 479-490, 2006, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2006.30.479

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and… More >

  • Open Access


    The uptake of cadmium by Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. and its effects on chromosome and nucleolar behavior in root tip cells

    Wang QL, DH Liu, JY Yue

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 155-161, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.155

    Abstract Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. seedlings are sensitive to Cd stress. We used fluorescence imaging to indicate that Cd2+ was localized in cytoplasm in the epidermis of the basal parts of root and vascular tissues after Cd treatment. The nucleoli and the cell walls were the first storage sites of Cd2+. When Cd exposure was prolonged, severe irregularly-shaped nuclei were induced. We used silver nitrate staining to analyze the effects of different concentrations (1–300 μM) of cadmium chloride on chromosome, nucleolus and nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in root tip cells. Cd2+ induced c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness and micronuclei. More… More >

  • Open Access


    Autophagy, apoptosis and organelle features during cell exposure to cadmiumč

    Cristiane Dos Santos VERGILIO, Edésio José Tenório De MELO*

    BIOCELL, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 45-54, 2013, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2013.37.045

    Abstract Cadmium (Cd) induces several effects in different tissues, but our knowledge of the toxic effects on organelles is insufficient. To observe the progression of Cd effects on organelle structure and function, HuH-7 cells (human hepatic carcinoma cell line) were exposed to CdCl2 in increasing concentrations (1 μM – 20 μM) and exposure times (2 h – 24 h). During Cd treatment, the cells exhibited a progressive decrease in viability that was both time- and dose-dependent. Cd treated cells displayed progressive morphological changes that included cytoplasm retraction and nuclear condensation preceding a total loss of cell adhesion. Treatment with 10 μM… More >

  • Open Access


    The Role of Autophagy in the Differentiation of EPCs Induced by Shear Stress

    Xiumei Guan1, Hong Li1, Xin Li1, Xiaoyun Zhang1, Xiaodong Cui1, Hong Yan1, Yuzhen Wang2, Shunmei Liu2, Min Cheng3,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.1, pp. 91-91, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.05755

    Abstract Aims: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in postnatal angiogenesis and neovascularization. Previous studies have revealed shear stress could accelerate EPC proliferation, differentiation, migration and so on, which contribute to postnatal angiogenesis and neovascularization. Moreover, some studies indicate that autophagy actively participates angiogenesis by affecting EPC migration and differentiation. Here, we try to elucidate the possible roles of autophagy of EPC differentiation induced by shear stress. Methods and Results: EPCs were exposed to shear stress (12 dyne/cm2). And then the expression of autophagy markers, such as LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ, P62andATG5, were analyzed using Western blot. The results have shown that… More >

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