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  • Open Access


    The effects of hormone-mediated PI3K/AKT signaling on spermatogenesis in Sertoli cells


    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.8, pp. 1709-1725, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.030379

    Abstract The phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway is crucial for Sertoli cell development and completing spermatogenesis. Its main role is to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Many factors activate the PI3K/AKT pathway, like hormones, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), androgen, estrogen, insulin to name a few. Many of these factors have receptors inside or on the surface of Sertoli cells (SCs). This review summarizes how these hormones directly regulate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SCs, which in turn affects SC proliferation and differentiation. Further, hormone-mediated PI3K/AKT signaling also stimulates SC secretion, which is essential for germ More >

  • Open Access


    Real-Time analysis of exosome secretion of single cells with single molecule imaging


    BIOCELL, Vol.45, No.6, pp. 1449-1451, 2021, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.017607

    Abstract The exosome-mediated response can promote or restrain the diseases by regulating the intracellular pathways, making the exosome become an effective marker for diagnosis and therapeutic control at the single-cell level. However, real-time analysis is hard to be achieved with traditional approaches because the exosomes usually need to be enriched by ultracentrifugation for a measurable signal-to-noise ratio. Recently developed label-free single-molecule imaging approaches may become an real-time quantitative tool for the analysis of single exosomes and related secretion behaviors of single living cells owing to their extreme sensitivity. More >

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