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  • Open Access


    Applications of Molecular Markers in Fruit Crops for Breeding Programs—A Review

    Riaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1,*, Safina Naz1, Rashad Mukhtar Balal2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.1, pp. 17-34, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011680

    Abstract Selection and use of molecular markers for evaluation of DNA polymorphism in plants are couple of the most important approaches in the field of molecular genetics. The assessment of genetic diversity using morphological markers is not sufficient due to little differentiating traits among the species, genera or their individuals. Morphological markers are not only highly influenced by environmental factors but skilled assessment is also prerequisite to find the variations in plant genetic resources. Therefore, molecular markers are considered as efficient tools for detailed DNA based characterization of fruit crops. Molecular markers provide new directions to More >

  • Open Access


    Ethyl Methanesulfonate as Inductor of Somaclonal Variants in Different Crops

    José Gregorio Joya-Dávila, F. A. Gutiérrez-Miceli*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 835-850, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.013679

    Abstract Ethyl methanesulfonate is a chemical mutagen, which is currently being used in plant breeding, to increase genetic variability in genes of agronomic interest, of species useful in agriculture. It primarily causes single base point mutations by inducing guanine alkylation, resulting in GC to AT transitions. Its effect is different between clones of a genotype and between genotypes of the same species. This review presents the results obtained in recent research, where its effect on plant tissues, callus, and cells in suspension has been evaluated. Changes in the phenotypic expression of somaclonal variants were reported, involving… More >

  • Open Access


    Identification of Crop Diseases Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm and Extreme Learning Machine

    Linguo Li1, 2, Lijuan Sun1, Jian Guo1, Shujing Li2, *, Ping Jiang3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.1, pp. 761-775, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.010158

    Abstract As an indispensable task in crop protection, the detection of crop diseases directly impacts the income of farmers. To address the problems of low crop-disease identification precision and detection abilities, a new method of detection is proposed based on improved genetic algorithm and extreme learning machine. Taking five different typical diseases with common crops as the objects, this method first preprocesses the images of crops and selects the optimal features for fusion. Then, it builds a model of crop disease identification for extreme learning machine, introduces the hill-climbing algorithm to improve the traditional genetic algorithm, More >

  • Open Access


    From Markers to Genome Based Breeding in Horticultural Crops: An Overview

    Riaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1,*, Rashad Mukhtar Balal2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.2, pp. 183-204, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08537

    Abstract Molecular markers, genome sequencing and genome editing are considered as efficient tools to accomplish demands of plant breeders for crop improvement programs. Morphological and biochemical markers have not been extensively used as these are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Different molecular markers and sequencing techniques are routinely used in evaluation of genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship, accurate classification or taxonomy, characterization of germplasm, identification of hybrids and phylogenetic studies. Desired and undesired traits controlled by genes can be identified through different molecular markers technology all over the globe. These molecular markers are well established and… More >

  • Open Access


    Spatial Distribution of Nymphs Populations Bactericera cockerelli Sulc in Tomato Crops (Physalis ixocarpa Brot)

    Roberto Rivera-Martínez1, Agustín David Acosta-Guadarrama1, José Francisco Ramírez-Dávila2,*, Fidel Lara Vazquez1, Dulce Karen Figueroa Figueroa1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.4, pp. 449-458, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.06350

    Abstract Tomato crops (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) are produced in almost all Mexico, part of the United States and Central America. Recently the tomato production has suffered economic losses of 70% to 80% due the presence of yellowing and floral abortion, whose causal agent has been attributed to the presence of phytoplasma; an insect vector of these phytoplasma is Bactericera cockerrelli Sulc. Alternative control of this psyllid has lacked effectiveness because their spatial distribution is unknown within tomato plots. This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of populations of nymphs of B. cockerelli in four tomato plots, the determination… More >

  • Open Access


    Spatial distribution and population fluctuation of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) in rose crops

    Chacón-Hernández J1, E Cerna-Chávez2, Y Ochoa-Fuentes2, A Hernández-Juárez2, L Palacios-Bazaldúa2, J Landeros-Flores2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 236-245, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.236

    Abstract Spatial and vertical distributions, and population !uctuations of Tetranychus urticae and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis were determined in four varieties of rose (Royal, Samuray, Red Baiser and Keiro) under greenhouse conditions. Nine samples for the pest and 8 samples for the predator were obtained. From 20 September to 18 November 2013, T. urticae and P. persimilis presented an aggregated distribution pattern during most of the sampling dates. At the same time, P. persimilis did not change the vertical distribution of T. urticae. A synchronous behavior between both predator and prey was observed in the four study varieties, although only the cultivars More >

  • Open Access


    Productive efficiencies in corn, bean and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) associations, intercropped with rows of fruit trees

    Molina-Anzures MF1, JL Chávez-Servia2, A Gil-Muñoz1, PA López1, E Hernández-Romero1, E Ortiz-Torres1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 36-50, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.036

    Abstract Mesoamerican agrosystem ‘milpa’ is the association of maize, beans (Phaseolus sp.) and squash (Cucurbits sp.) in the same space and time. It is characterized by the production of a large diversity of species in small areas, but currently its use tends to decrease because of technological introductions of monocultures. In this work, the yield and productive efficiency of the association maize, beans and squash, intercropped with fruit tree rows were evaluated in two locations from Puebla, Mexico, through 32 experimental treatments clustered in three agrosystems. They were: triple associations of maize-beans-squash intercropped with fruit trees, double… More >

  • Open Access


    Effects of high arsenic and fluoride soil concentrations on soybean plants

    Bustingorri C, K Balestrasse, RS Lavado

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.2, pp. 407-416, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.407

    Abstract Arsenic (As) and Fluoride (F) are present in many soils, affecting crops and posing risks in the food chain. We performed pot experiments on spiked soils enriched in these elements either individually or simultaneously, over a wide range of concentrations. Soybean biomass production, grain yield, As and F accumulation and distribution within the plant, and the antioxidant response to these stresses were analyzed. Arsenic was more toxic than F. At As levels >35 mg/kg and F levels >375 mg/kg, yield loss reached 60% and 30%, respectively. At the highest dose of As plants died within More >

  • Open Access


    Land equivalent ratio, grain and pod yield and ethereal extract of Helianthus annuus L. in monoculture and associated with Pisum sativum L. in function of stabilized urea

    Piña-González JL1, EJ Morales-Rosales2, A Domíngez-López2, JF Ramírez-Dávila2, G Estrada-Campuzano2, O Franco-Mora2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 101-108, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.101

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the land equivalent ratio, biomass, grain yield and ethereal extract of Helianthus annuus in monoculture and associated with Pisum sativum in function of stabilized urea (0, 40, 80 kg N/ha) in El Cerrillo, México. It was also estimated pod yield obtained by P. sativum as a pure stand and associated with H. annuus. The six treatments (in each experiment) were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. When F values were significant, the honestly significant difference test at the 5%… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of N sources, cover crops, and tillage systems for corn grown under organic management

    Suarez Tapia A1, MB Villamil1, LJ Grabau2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 71-81, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.071

    Abstract Public demand for healthier foods and more sustainable food systems in the U.S. has triggered market prices and production of organic alternatives of major crops such as corn (Zea mays L.). Two cover crops and their interactions with tillage systems, N sources and N rates were studied to evaluate the possibility of using these agronomic practices to facilitate growing corn under organic management in Kentucky. A split-split plot design in a RCBD with four replications was evaluated in three environments (SP08, UKR08, UKR09). The main plot treatments were cover crops [hairy vetch, HV (Vicia villosa Roth) and… More >

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