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  • Open Access


    A Measurement Study of the Ethereum Underlying P2P Network

    Mohammad Z. Masoud1, Yousef Jaradat1, Ahmad Manasrah2, Mohammad Alia3, Khaled Suwais4,*, Sally Almanasra4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 515-532, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044504

    Abstract This work carried out a measurement study of the Ethereum Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network to gain a better understanding of the underlying nodes. Ethereum was applied because it pioneered distributed applications, smart contracts, and Web3. Moreover, its application layer language “Solidity” is widely used in smart contracts across different public and private blockchains. To this end, we wrote a new Ethereum client based on Geth to collect Ethereum node information. Moreover, various web scrapers have been written to collect nodes’ historical data from the Internet Archive and the Wayback Machine project. The collected data has been compared with two other services… More >

  • Open Access


    A Review on the Security of the Ethereum-Based DeFi Ecosystem

    Yue Xue1, Dunqiu Fan2, Shen Su1,3,*, Jialu Fu1, Ning Hu1, Wenmao Liu2, Zhihong Tian1,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.1, pp. 69-101, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.031488

    Abstract Decentralized finance (DeFi) is a general term for a series of financial products and services. It is based on blockchain technology and has attracted people’s attention because of its open, transparent, and intermediary free. Among them, the DeFi ecosystem based on Ethereum-based blockchains attracts the most attention. However, the current decentralized financial system built on the Ethereum architecture has been exposed to many smart contract vulnerabilities during the last few years. Herein, we believe it is time to improve the understanding of the prevailing Ethereum-based DeFi ecosystem security issues. To that end, we investigate the Ethereum-based DeFi security issues: 1)… More >

  • Open Access


    The Detection of Fraudulent Smart Contracts Based on ECA-EfficientNet and Data Enhancement

    Xuanchen Zhou1,2,3, Wenzhong Yang2,3,*, Liejun Wang2,3, Fuyuan Wei2,3, KeZiErBieKe HaiLaTi2,3, Yuanyuan Liao2,3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.3, pp. 4073-4087, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.040253

    Abstract With the increasing popularity of Ethereum, smart contracts have become a prime target for fraudulent activities such as Ponzi, honeypot, gambling, and phishing schemes. While some researchers have studied intelligent fraud detection, most research has focused on identifying Ponzi contracts, with little attention given to detecting and preventing gambling or phishing contracts. There are three main issues with current research. Firstly, there exists a severe data imbalance between fraudulent and non-fraudulent contracts. Secondly, the existing detection methods rely on diverse raw features that may not generalize well in identifying various classes of fraudulent contracts. Lastly, most prior studies have used… More >

  • Open Access


    “Half of the Node Records Are Forged?”: The Problem of Node Records Forgery in Ethereum Network

    Yang Liu1,2,*, Zhiyuan Lin1, Yuxi Zhang1, Lin Jiang1,*, Xuan Wang1,3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.2, pp. 1713-1729, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.030468

    Abstract Ethereum, currently the most widely utilized smart contracts platform, anchors the security of myriad smart contracts upon its own robustness. Its foundational peer-to-peer network facilitates a dependable node connection mechanism, whereas an efficient data-sharing protocol constitutes as the bedrock of Blockchain network security. In this paper, we propose NodeHunter, an Ethereum network detector implemented through the application of simulation technology, which is capable of aggregating all node records within the network and the interconnectedness between them. Utilizing this connection information, NodeHunter can procure more comprehensive insights for network status analysis compared to preceding detection methodologies. Throughout a three-month period of… More >

  • Open Access


    Enhancement of UAV Data Security and Privacy via Ethereum Blockchain Technology

    Sur Singh Rawat1,*, Youseef Alotaibi2, Nitima Malsa1, Vimal Gupta1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.2, pp. 1797-1815, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039381

    Abstract Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have revolutionized a wide range of industries, including monitoring, agriculture, surveillance, and supply chain. However, their widespread use also poses significant challenges, such as public safety, privacy, and cybersecurity. Cyberattacks, targeting UAVs have become more frequent, which highlights the need for robust security solutions. Blockchain technology, the foundation of cryptocurrencies has the potential to address these challenges. This study suggests a platform that utilizes blockchain technology to manage drone operations securely and confidentially. By incorporating blockchain technology, the proposed method aims to increase the security and privacy of drone data. The suggested platform stores… More >

  • Open Access


    A Trailblazing Framework of Security Assessment for Traffic Data Management

    Abdulaziz Attaallah1, Khalil al-Sulbi2, Areej Alasiry3, Mehrez Marzougui3, Neha Yadav4, Syed Anas Ansar5,*, Pawan Kumar Chaurasia4, Alka Agrawal4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 1853-1875, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.039761

    Abstract Connected and autonomous vehicles are seeing their dawn at this moment. They provide numerous benefits to vehicle owners, manufacturers, vehicle service providers, insurance companies, etc. These vehicles generate a large amount of data, which makes privacy and security a major challenge to their success. The complicated machine-led mechanics of connected and autonomous vehicles increase the risks of privacy invasion and cyber security violations for their users by making them more susceptible to data exploitation and vulnerable to cyber-attacks than any of their predecessors. This could have a negative impact on how well-liked CAVs are with the general public, give them… More >

  • Open Access


    Recapitulation Web 3.0: Architecture, Features and Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges

    Amtul Waheed, Bhawna Dhupia*, Sultan Mesfer Aldossary

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 1609-1620, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.037539

    Abstract Tim Berners-Lee developed the internet at CERN in early 1990 with fundamental technologies such as HTML, URL, and HTTP which became the foundation of the web. The contemporary web we use today has been much advanced over a period of time ever since the innovation of the World Wide Web was introduced. The static web was the first version of the web, which was the read-only web. Succeeding development in web technology is web 3.0 which is a distributed and decentralized web with emerging technologies. This article emphasizes the comparison of important details with the evolution of the web. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Detecting Ethereum Ponzi Schemes Through Opcode Context Analysis and Oversampling-Based AdaBoost Algorithm

    Mengxiao Wang1,2, Jing Huang1,2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 1023-1042, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.039569

    Abstract Due to the anonymity of blockchain, frequent security incidents and attacks occur through it, among which the Ponzi scheme smart contract is a classic type of fraud resulting in huge economic losses. Machine learning-based methods are believed to be promising for detecting ethereum Ponzi schemes. However, there are still some flaws in current research, e.g., insufficient feature extraction of Ponzi scheme smart contracts, without considering class imbalance. In addition, there is room for improvement in detection precision. Aiming at the above problems, this paper proposes an ethereum Ponzi scheme detection scheme through opcode context analysis and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm.… More >

  • Open Access


    Vulnerability Detection of Ethereum Smart Contract Based on SolBERT-BiGRU-Attention Hybrid Neural Model

    Guangxia Xu1,*, Lei Liu2, Jingnan Dong3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.137, No.1, pp. 903-922, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.026627

    Abstract In recent years, with the great success of pre-trained language models, the pre-trained BERT model has been gradually applied to the field of source code understanding. However, the time cost of training a language model from zero is very high, and how to transfer the pre-trained language model to the field of smart contract vulnerability detection is a hot research direction at present. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model to detect common vulnerabilities in smart contracts based on a lightweight pre-trained language model BERT and connected to a bidirectional gate recurrent unit model. The downstream neural network adopts… More >

  • Open Access


    Ether-IoT: A Realtime Lightweight and Scalable Blockchain-Enabled Cache Algorithm for IoT Access Control

    Hafiz Adnan Hussain*, Zulkefli Mansor, Zarina Shukur, Uzma Jafar

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 3797-3815, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034671

    Abstract Several unique characteristics of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, such as distributed deployment and limited storage, make it challenging for standard centralized access control systems to enable access control in today’s large-scale IoT ecosystem. To solve these challenges, this study presents an IoT access control system called Ether-IoT based on the Ethereum Blockchain (BC) infrastructure with Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC). Access Contract (AC), Cache Contract (CC), Device Contract (DC), and Policy Contract (PC) are the four central smart contracts (SCs) that are included in the proposed system. CC offers a way to save user characteristics in a local cache system… More >

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