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  • Open Access


    Use of the pressure chamber and thermocouple psychrometers to determine the water relations of plant tissues

    Busso CA

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 327-350, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.327

    Abstract Advantages, disadvantages and precautions of using the pressure chamber and thermocouple psychrometers for determinations of plant water potential, and osmotic and turgor pressures are discussed. Comparison of results obtained with both instruments will be influenced by the sampling technique, consistency in both sampling and measurement procedures, and errors inherent to the method itself. In-situ readings of either plant or soil water potential with thermocouple psychrometers are perhaps worthless, or worse (they may even be misleading). Use of thermocouple psychrometers is strictly limited to the laboratory where isothermal conditions can be obtained. The method to determine the water relations of plant… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of PEG8000 and NaCl on germination and seedling traits of tropical maize (Zea mays L.)

    Castañón-Nájera G1, L Latorunerie-Moreno2, YA Gálvez Muñoz3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 290-295, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.290

    Abstract Among the different types of abiotic stresses, water is the most damaging for crops. In the current research, the effect of water stress, induced with Polyethylene Glycol 8000 (PEG8000) and Sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, was studied in maize genotypes. A randomized block design (RBD) with a factorial arrangement and four replications of 25 seeds each was used. The studied maize genotypes were RC2C39, RC2C51 (wild varieties of the State of Tabasco backcrossed with the endogamic line CML247 of the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat), wild Tamulte, VS536, and Asgrow 7573 hybrid, study osmotic pressures (OP) were… More >

  • Open Access


    Targeting Glycinebetaine for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants: Physiological Mechanism, Molecular Interaction and Signaling

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman1,*, Aditya Banerjee2, M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan3,4, Aryadeep Roychoudhury2,*, Jubayer Al Mahmud5 and Masayuki Fujita3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 185-221, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.07559

    Abstract In the era of climate change, abiotic stresses (e.g., salinity, drought, extreme temperature, flooding, metal/metalloid(s), UV radiation, ozone, etc.) are considered as one of the most complex environmental constraints that restricts crop production worldwide. Introduction of stress-tolerant crop cultivars is the most auspicious way of surviving this constraint, and to produce these types of tolerant crops. Several bioengineering mechanisms involved in stress signaling are being adopted in this regard. One example of this kind of manipulation is the osmotic adjustment. The quarternary ammonium compound glycinebetaine (GB), also originally referred to as betaine is a methylated glycine derivative. Among the betaines,… More >

  • Open Access


    Clustering of halophytic species from Cyprus based on ionic contents

    Ozturk M1, S Gucel2, V Altay3, MSA Ahmad4, MY Ashraf5, M Ashraf6

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.1, pp. 63-68, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.04574

    Abstract This paper presents the work conducted on the chemical constituents of some common and widely distributed halophyte taxa from Cyprus with the aim that these studies will help in the evaluation of halophytes for different economical purposes. The plant species of Crithmum maritimum L., Limbarda crithmoides (L.) Dumort, Atriplex portulacoides L., Salsola kali L., Atriplex halimus L., Limonium oleifolium Mill., L. meyeri (Boiss.) Kuntze; and Tetraena alba (L.f.) Beier & Thulin were collected in the middle of July. The shoot tissue and leaf samples were collected from the natural habitats and left for drying under air circulation followed by placing… More >

  • Open Access


    Osmotic Loading of in Situ Chondrocytes in Their Native Environment

    Rami K Korhonen∗,†, Sang-Kuy Han, Walter Herzog

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 125-134, 2010, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2010.007.125

    Abstract Changes in the osmotic environment cause changes in volume of isolated cells and cells in tissue explants, and the osmotic environment becomes hypotonic in cartilage diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is not known how cells respond to a hypotonic osmotic challenge when situated in the fully intact articular cartilage.
    A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to image chondrocytes of intact rabbit patellae in an isotonic (300 mOsm) and hypotonic (172 mOsm) immersion medium. Cell volumes were calculated before and 5, 15, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after the change in saline concentration. Local tissue strains and swelling… More >

  • Open Access


    Changes in Triphasic Mechanical Properties of Proteoglycan-Depleted Articular Cartilage Extracted from Osmotic Swelling Behavior Monitored Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    Q Wang*, YP Zheng∗,†, HJ Niu∗,‡

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 45-58, 2010, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2010.007.045

    Abstract This study aims to obtain osmosis-induced swelling strains of normal and proteoglycan (PG) depleted articular cartilage using an ultrasound system and to investigate the changes in its mechanical properties due to the PG depletion using a layered triphasic model. The swelling strains of 20 cylindrical cartilage-bone samples collected from different bovine patellae were induced by decreasing the concentration of bath saline and monitored by the ultrasound system. The samples were subsequently digested by a trypsin solution for approximately 20 min to deplete proteoglycans, and the swelling behaviors of the digested samples were measured again. The bi-layered triphasic model proposed in… More >

  • Open Access


    Osmoregulatory Function of Large Vacuoles Found in Notochordal Cells of the Intervertebral Disc Running Title: An Osmoregulatory Vacuole

    Christopher J. Hunter∗,†, Sophia Bianchi*, Phil Cheng, Ken Muldrew∗,‡

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 227-238, 2007, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2007.004.227

    Abstract The nucleus pulposi of many species contain residual cells from the embryonic notochord, which exhibit a very unusual appearance (large vacuoles occupying ~80% of the cell volume, surrounded by an actin cytoskeleton). While the vacuoles have been qualitatively described, their composition and function has remained elusive. Given that these cells are believed to generate and experience significant osmotic pressures in both the notochord and intervertebral disc, we hypothesized that the vacuoles may serve as osmoregulatory organelles. Using both experimental and theoretical means, we demonstrated that the vacuoles contain a low-osmolality solution, generated via ion pumps on the vacuolar membrane. During… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimizing the Design of PV Solar Reverse Osmosis Unit (RO/PV) by using Genetic Algorithms for Abu Dhabi Climate

    K. Bououni1, T. Jaber1, S. Elbehissy1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 127-141, 2017, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2017.013.127

    Abstract The economic progress in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) induces to a significant increase in the demand for agricultural development. In Emirates the majority of the farms are irrigated by underground water, characterized by a high level of salinity. Liwa, Al Ain and Al Khatem areas are suffering from high water well salinity that exceeds 20,000 ppm. This work focuses on this problem and suggests a suitable solution allowing the use of renewable energy (Solar Photovoltaic) to drive RO desalination units. An optimal design of RO/PV unit adapted to a typical farm in Abu Dhabi was suggested using a model… More >

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