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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Claroideoglomus etunicatum improved the growth and saline– alkaline tolerance of Potentilla anserina by altering physiological and biochemical properties

    YUNHUI ZHOU, YAJIE LIU, YUDAN WANG, CHUNXUE YANG*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.8, pp. 1967-1978, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.019304

    Abstract To investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth and saline–alkaline tolerance of Potentilla anserina L., the seedlings were inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum (W.N. Becker & Gerd.) C. Walker & A. Schüßler in pot cultivation. After 90 days of culture, saline–alkaline stress was induced with NaCl and NaHCO3 solution according to the main salt components in saline–alkaline soils. Based on the physiological response of P. anserina to the stress in the preliminary experiment, the solution concentrations of 0 mmol/L, 75 mmol/L, 150 mmol/L, 225 mmol/L and 300 mmol/L were treated with stress for 10 days,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Exogenous Calcium Chloride on Alleviating Salt Stress in Two Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) Varieties Differing in Salinity Tolerance

    Tao Zhang*, Hongbing Yang

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1643-1658, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019572

    Abstract Salt stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. Calcium as an essential nutrient element and important signaling molecule plays an important role in ameliorating the adverse effect of salinity on plants. This study aimed to investigate the impact of exogenous calcium on improving salt tolerance in Tartary buckwheat cultivars, cv. Xinong9920 (salt-tolerant) and cv. Xinong9909 (salt-sensitive). Four-week-old Tartary buckwheat seedlings under 100 mM NaCl stress were treated with and without exogenous calcium chloride (CaCl2), Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and Ca2+-channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) for 10 days.… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Crop Improvement and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Promoted by Moringa Leaf Extract

    Md. Abir Ul Islam1, Juthy Abedin Nupur2, Charles T. Hunter3, Abdullah Al Mamun Sohag4, Ashaduzzaman Sagar5, Md. Sazzad Hossain6, Mona F. A. Dawood7,*, Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef8, Marián Brestič9,10, Md. Tahjib-UI-Arif4,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1557-1583, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021556

    Abstract Moringa leaf extract (MLE) has been shown to promote beneficial outcomes in animals and plants. It is rich in amino acids, antioxidants, phytohormones, minerals, and many other bioactive compounds with nutritional and growth-promoting potential. Recent reports indicated that MLE improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MLE-mediated abiotic stress tolerance remains limited. This review summarizes the existing literature on the role of MLE in promoting plant abiotic stress acclimation processes. MLE is applied to plants in a variety of ways, including foliar spray, rooting media, and seed priming. Exogenous application More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    OsMAPK6 Affects Male Fertility by Reducing Microspore Number and Delaying Tapetum Degradation in Oryza sativa L.

    Wuzhong Yin#, Hongxia Yang#, Yantong Wang, Ping Feng, Yao Deng, Yang Liu, Danyang Chen, Yijie Ban, Weichi Liu, Guanghua He*, Nan Wang*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 727-744, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017811

    Abstract The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is important in stress signal transduction and plant development. In the present study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant with reduced fertility, Oryza sativa mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (osmapk6), which harbored a mutated MAPK gene. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, TUNEL assays, RNA in situ hybridization, longitudinal and transverse histological sectioning, and map-based cloning were performed to characterize the osmapk6 mutant. The gene OsMAPK6 was expressed throughout the plant but predominantly in the microspore mother cells, tapetal cells, and microspores in the anther sac. Compared with the More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chaotic Whale Optimized Fractional Order PID Controller Design for Desalination Process

    F. Kavin1,*, R. Senthilkumar2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2789-2806, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021577

    Abstract The main aim of this work is to design a suitable Fractional Order Proportionl Integral Derivative (FOPID) controller with Chaotic Whale Optimization Algorithm (CWOA) for a RO desalination system. Continuous research on Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination plants is a promising technique for satisfaction with sustainable and efficient RO plants. This work implements CWOA based FOPID for the simulation of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process for both servo and regulatory problems. Mathematical modeling is a vital constituent of designing advanced and developed engineering processes, which helps to gain a deep study of processes to predict the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fluid and Osmotic Pressure Balance and Volume Stabilization in Cells

    Peter M. Pinsky*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.129, No.3, pp. 1329-1350, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.017740

    Abstract A fundamental problem for cells with their fragile membranes is the control of their volume. The primordial solution to this problem is the active transport of ions across the cell membrane to modulate the intracellular osmotic pressure. In this work, a theoretical model of the cellular pump-leak mechanism is proposed within the general framework of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The model is expressed with phenomenological equations that describe passive and active ionic transport across cell membranes, supplemented by an equation for the membrane potential that accounts for the electrogenicity of the ionic pumps. For active ionic More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Mechanism of tobacco osmotin gene in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance: A brief history

    HAKIM MANGHWAR1,#,*, AMJAD HUSSAIN2,#

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.3, pp. 623-632, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.017316

    Abstract Plants are recurrently exposed to myriads of biotic and abiotic stresses leading to several biochemical and physiological variations that cause severe impacts on plant growth and survival. To overcome these challenges, plants activate two primary defense mechanisms, such as structural response (cell wall strengthening and waxy epidermal cuticle development) and metabolic changes, including the synthesis of anti-microbial compounds and proteins, especially the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. PR proteins are members of a super large family of defense proteins that exhibit antimicrobial activities. Their over-expression in plants provides tolerance to many abiotic and biotic stresses. PR proteins… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties and Microcosmic Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Modified by Compound Admixtures

    Song Yang1, Bing Qi1, Zubin Ai1, Zhensheng Cao1, Shiqin He2,*, Lijun Li3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 897-908, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016653

    Abstract It has become a research hotspot to explore raw material substitutes of concrete. It is important to research the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with slag powder (SP) and rubber particle (RP) replacing cement and coarse aggregate, respectively. 12 kinds of composite modified self-compacting concrete (CMSCC) specimens were prepared by using 10%, 20% and 30% SP and 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% RP. The rheological properties, mechanical properties and microstructure of the CMSCC were investigated. Results indicate that the workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of CMSCC prepared by 20% SP… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Foliar Application of Cytokinin Modulates Gas Exchange Features, Water Relation and Biochemical Responses to Improve Growth Performance of Maize under Drought Stress

    M. Rafiqul Islam1,*, M. Shahinur Islam1, Nurunnaher Akter1, Mohammed Mohi-Ud-Din2, Mohammad Golam Mostofa3,4,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.3, pp. 633-649, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018074

    Abstract Improvement of plant performance under drought stress is crucial to sustaining agricultural productivity. The current study investigated the ameliorative effects of foliar-applied kinetin, an adenine-type cytokinin (CK), on growth and gas exchange parameters, water relations and biochemical attributes of maize plants under drought stress. Eighteen-day-old maize plants were subjected to drought by maintaining soil moisture content at 25% field capacity for 8 days followed by foliar application of kinetin at 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg L−1 (CK0, CK75, CK150 and CK225, respectively) to the plants for two-times at the 9-day interval. Results revealed that drought stress… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Intent-Driven Closed-Loop Platform for 5G Network Service Orchestration

    Talha Ahmed Khan, Khizar Abbas, Afaq Muhammad, Wang-Cheol Song*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 4323-4340, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.017118

    Abstract The scope of the 5G network is not only limited to the enhancements in the form of the quality of service (QoS), but it also includes a wide range of services with various requirements. Besides this, many approaches and platforms are under the umbrella of 5G to achieve the goals of end-to-end service provisioning. However, the management of multiple services over heterogeneous platforms is a complex task. Each platform and service have various requirements to be handled by domain experts. Still, if the next-generation network management is dependent on manual updates, it will become impossible… More >

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