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  • Open Access


    A Hybridized Artificial Neural Network for Automated Software Test Oracle

    K. Kamaraj1,*, B. Lanitha2, S. Karthic3, P. N. Senthil Prakash4, R. Mahaveerakannan5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1837-1850, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.029703

    Abstract Software testing is the methodology of analyzing the nature of software to test if it works as anticipated so as to boost its reliability and quality. These two characteristics are very critical in the software applications of present times. When testers want to perform scenario evaluations, test oracles are generally employed in the third phase. Upon test case execution and test outcome generation, it is essential to validate the results so as to establish the software behavior’s correctness. By choosing a feasible technique for the test case optimization and prioritization as along with an appropriate assessment of the application, leads… More >

  • Open Access


    Active Authentication Protocol for IoV Environment with Distributed Servers

    Saravanan Manikandan1, Mosiur Rahaman1, Yu-Lin Song1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 5789-5808, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.031490

    Abstract The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has evolved as an advancement over the conventional Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) in pursuing a more optimal intelligent transportation system that can provide various intelligent solutions and enable a variety of applications for vehicular traffic. Massive volumes of data are produced and communicated wirelessly among the different relayed entities in these vehicular networks, which might entice adversaries and endanger the system with a wide range of security attacks. To ensure the security of such a sensitive network, we proposed a distributed authentication mechanism for IoV based on blockchain technology as a distributed ledger with an… More >

  • Open Access


    Unidirectional Identity-Based Proxy Re-Signature with Key Insulation in EHR Sharing System

    Yanan Chen1,2,3,4, Ting Yao1,4,*, Haiping Ren2, Zehao Gan1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.131, No.3, pp. 1497-1513, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.019589

    Abstract The introduction of the electronic medical record (EHR) sharing system has made a great contribution to the management and sharing of healthcare data. Considering referral treatment for patients, the original signature needs to be converted into a re-signature that can be verified by the new organization. Proxy re-signature (PRS) can be applied to this scenario so that authenticity and nonrepudiation can still be insured for data. Unfortunately, the existing PRS schemes cannot realize forward and backward security. Therefore, this paper proposes the first PRS scheme that can provide key-insulated property, which can guarantee both the forward and backward security of… More >

  • Open Access


    Grover’s Algorithm in a 4-Qubit Search Space

    Saasha Joshi*, Deepti Gupta

    Journal of Quantum Computing, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 137-150, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jqc.2021.018114

    Abstract This paper provides an introduction to a quantum search algorithm, known as Grover’s Algorithm, for unsorted search purposes. The algorithm is implemented in a search space of 4 qubits using the Python-based Qiskit SDK by IBM. While providing detailed proof, the computational complexity of the algorithm is generalized to n qubits. The implementation results obtained from the IBM QASM Simulator and IBMQ Santiago quantum backend are analyzed and compared. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges faced in implementation and real-life applications of the algorithm hitherto. Overall, the implementation and analysis depict the advantages of this quantum search algorithm over its… More >

  • Open Access


    Post-Quantum Blockchain over Lattice

    Xiao Zhang1, 2, 3, Faguo Wu1, 2, 3, Wang Yao1, 2, 3, *, Wenhua Wang4, Zhiming Zheng1, 2, 3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.63, No.2, pp. 845-859, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.08008

    Abstract Blockchain is an emerging decentralized architecture and distributed computing paradigm underlying Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, and has recently attracted intensive attention from governments, financial institutions, high-tech enterprises, and the capital markets. Its cryptographic security relies on asymmetric cryptography, such as ECC, RSA. However, with the surprising development of quantum technology, asymmetric cryptography schemes mentioned above would become vulnerable. Recently, lattice-based cryptography scheme was proposed to be secure against attacks in the quantum era. In 2018, with the aid of Bonsai Trees technology, Yin et al. [Yin, Wen, Li et al. (2018)] proposed a lattice-based authentication method which can extend a… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Certificateless Aggregate Signature Scheme Designed for VANET

    Cui Li1, *, Gang Wu1, Lipeng Xing1, Feng Zhu1, Liang Zhao2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.63, No.2, pp. 725-742, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.07188

    Abstract The Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is the fundamental of smart transportation system in the future, but the security of the communication between vehicles and vehicles, between vehicles and roadside infrastructures have become increasingly prominent. Certificateless aggregate signature protocol is used to address this security issue, but the existing schemes still have many drawbacks in terms of security and efficiency: First, many schemes are not secure, and signatures can be forged by the attacker; Second, even if some scheme are secure, many schemes use a large number of bilinear pairing operation, and the computation overhead is large. At the same time,… More >

  • Open Access


    Privacy-Preserving Quantum Two-Party Geometric Intersection

    Wenjie Liu1,2,*, Yong Xu2, James C. N. Yang3, Wenbin Yu1,2, Lianhua Chi4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.3, pp. 1237-1250, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.03551

    Abstract Privacy-preserving computational geometry is the research area on the intersection of the domains of secure multi-party computation (SMC) and computational geometry. As an important field, the privacy-preserving geometric intersection (PGI) problem is when each of the multiple parties has a private geometric graph and seeks to determine whether their graphs intersect or not without revealing their private information. In this study, through representing Alice’s (Bob’s) private geometric graph GA (GB) as the set of numbered grids SA (SB), an efficient privacy-preserving quantum two-party geometric intersection (PQGI) protocol is proposed. In the protocol, the oracle operation OA (OB) is firstly utilized… More >

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