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  • Open Access


    Numerical Approach to Simulate the Effect of Corrosion Damage on the Natural Frequency of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Amthal Hakim1, Wael Slika1,*, Rawan Machmouchi1, Adel Elkordi2

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.17, No.3, pp. 175-194, 2023, DOI:10.32604/sdhm.2022.023027

    Abstract Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete elements causes minor to major damage in different aspects. It may lead to spalling of concrete cover, reduction of section’s capacity and can alter the dynamic properties. For the dynamic properties, natural frequency is to be a reliable indicator of structural integrity that can be utilized in non-destructive corrosion assessment. Although the correlation between natural frequency and corrosion damage has been reflected in different experimental programs, few attempts have been made to investigate this relationship in forward modeling and/or structural health monitoring techniques. This can be attributed to the limited available data, the complex… More >

  • Open Access


    Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures through Damage Indices: A State-of-the-Art Review

    D. A. Makhloof, A. R. Ibrahim, Xiaodan Ren*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.128, No.3, pp. 849-874, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.016882

    Abstract Due to the developments of computer science and technology in recent years, computer models and numerical simulations for large and complicated structures can be done. Among the vast information and results obtained from the analysis and simulations, the damage performance is of great importance since this damage might cause enormous losses for society and humanity, notably in cases of severe damage occurring. One of the most effective tools to handle the results about the damage performance of the structure is the damage index (DI) together with the damage states, which are used to correlate the damage indices with the damage… More >

  • Open Access


    A Strain-Based Constitutive Model for Concrete under Tension in Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of RC Flexural Members

    Smitha Gopinath1, J. Rajasankar1,2, Nagesh R. Iyer1, T. S. Krishnamoorthy1, B.H.Bharatkumar1, N. Lakshmanan1

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.5, No.4, pp. 311-336, 2009, DOI:10.3970/sdhm.2009.005.311

    Abstract In this paper, a two-phase strain-based constitutive model is proposed for concrete under tension. First phase deals with modelling uncracked concrete while the behaviour of concrete in cracked condition is modelled in second phase with appropriate theoretical support. A bilinear tension softening curve of concrete defined in crack width-stress space is taken as the basis to propose the model. Smeared representation of reinforcement and cracks along with multi-layered geometry definition of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is used to implement the model. Through this, it is shown that change in the orientation of tensile cracks with increasing load on the structure… More >

  • Open Access


    An Integrated Model for Tension Stiffening and Reinforcement Corrosion of RC Flexural Members

    Smitha Gopinath1,2, J. Rajasankar1, Nagesh R.Iyer1, A.Rama Chandra Murthy1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 87-110, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2013.033.087

    Abstract An integrated model is proposed to describe tension stiffening in reinforced concrete (RC) flexural members that are undergoing uniform corrosion of reinforcement. The tension stiffening model is taken as base to incorporate the effects of reinforcement corrosion. The model is developed in two steps. In the first step, tension stiffening of concrete is modelled using an exponential stress-strain curve defined as function of a decay parameter. Modular ratio and reinforcement ratio are considered in the definition of the decay parameter. In the second step, the effects of uniform corrosion of reinforcement are integrated with the tension stiffening model. For this,… More >

  • Open Access


    Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Coupling Action of Load and Chlorine Erosion

    Yang Li1,*, Dongwei Yang1, Jiangkun Zhang1

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 51-63, 2018, DOI:10.3970/sdhm.2018.012.051

    Abstract Diffusion behavior of chloride ion in reinforced concrete under bending moment was studied by taking the ratio of bending moment to ultimate flexural capacity as load level indicator. The function relationship between load level and chloride ion diffusion coefficient was established, based on that the limit state equation of the chloride ion critical concentration and chloride ion concentration on surface of the steel bar was established. Then by applying Monte-Carlo method the corrosion probability of reinforcement under different load levels in splash zone was calculated. Calculation results demonstrated that compared with the durability reliability index considering loading effect, the reliability… More >

  • Open Access


    Computational Framework for Durability Design and Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Environment

    Gang Lin1, Yinghua Liu1,2, Zhihai Xiang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.47, No.3, pp. 217-252, 2009, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2009.047.217

    Abstract Deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to chloride ingress followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem all over the world, therefore prediction of chloride profiles is a key element in evaluating durability and integrity of RC structures exposed to chloride environment. In the present paper, an integrated finite element-based computational framework is developed for predicting service life of RC structures exposed to chloride environment, which takes environment temperature and humidity fluctuations, diffusion and convection, chloride binding, as well as the decay of durability of structures caused by coupled deterioration processes into account. The decay of RC structures due… More >

  • Open Access


    Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of RC Structures Incorporating Corrosion Effects

    Smitha Gopinath1,2, A. Ramach,ra Murthy1, Nagesh R. Iyer1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.22, No.1, pp. 55-72, 2011, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2011.022.055

    Abstract This paper presents the mathematical modeling techniques for nonlinear finite element analysis of RC structure to incorporate uniform corrosion effects. Effect of corrosion has been simulated as reduction in effective cross-sectional area of reinforcing bar, reduction in bonding phenomena and as reduction in material properties of reinforcing bar such as yield strength and elastic modulus. Appropriate constitutive laws for (i) corroded rebar elements and (ii) bond slip with corroded bar have been described. Procedure has been outlined to determine the global damage indicator by secant stiffness based approach. A corroded RC beam has been analysed to validate the proposed model… More >

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