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  • Open Access


    Average Secrecy Capacity of the Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Assisted Integrated Satellite Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Relay Networks

    Ping Li1, Kefeng Guo2,*, Feng Zhou1, Xueling Wang3, Yuzhen Huang4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.2, pp. 1849-1864, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029801

    Abstract Integrated satellite unmanned aerial vehicle relay networks (ISUAVRNs) have become a prominent topic in recent years. This paper investigates the average secrecy capacity (ASC) for reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-enabled ISUAVRNs. Especially, an eve is considered to intercept the legitimate information from the considered secrecy system. Besides, we get detailed expressions for the ASC of the regarded secrecy system with the aid of the reconfigurable intelligent. Furthermore, to gain insightful results of the major parameters on the ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio regime, the approximate investigations are further gotten, which give an efficient method to value More >

  • Open Access


    Optimization of Cooperative Relaying Molecular Communications for Nanomedical Applications

    Eman S. Attia1, Ashraf A. M. Khalaf1, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie2, Saied M. Abd El-atty2,*, Konstantinos A. Lizos3,#, Osama Alfarraj4, Heba M. El-Hoseny5

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.2, pp. 1259-1275, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.028990

    Abstract Recently, nano-systems based on molecular communications via diffusion (MCvD) have been implemented in a variety of nanomedical applications, most notably in targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) scenarios. Furthermore, because the MCvD is unreliable and there exists molecular noise and inter symbol interference (ISI), cooperative nano-relays can acquire the reliability for drug delivery to targeted diseased cells, especially if the separation distance between the nano transmitter and nano receiver is increased. In this work, we propose an approach for optimizing the performance of the nano system using cooperative molecular communications with a nano relay scheme, while… More >

  • Open Access


    Operation Control Method of Relay Protection in Flexible DC Distribution Network Compatible with Distributed Power Supply

    Zihan Qi*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.11, pp. 2547-2563, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.027045

    Abstract A novel operation control method for relay protection in flexible DC distribution networks with distributed power supply is proposed to address the issue of inaccurate fault location during relay protection, leading to poor performance. The method combines a fault-tolerant fault location method based on long-term and short-term memory networks to accurately locate the fault section. Then, an operation control method for relay protection based on adaptive weight and whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is used to construct an objective function considering the shortest relay protection action time and the smallest impulse current. The adaptive weight and More >

  • Open Access


    Decision Analysis on IoV Routing Transmission and Energy Efficiency Optimization Algorithm with AmBC

    Baofeng Ji1,2,3,*, Mingkun Zhang1,2, Weixing Wang1, Song Chen4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.137, No.3, pp. 2661-2673, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.028762

    Abstract The improvement of the quality and efficiency of vehicle wireless network data transmission is always a key concern in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Routing transmission solved the limitation of transmission distance to a certain extent. Traditional routing algorithm cannot adapt to complex traffic environment, resulting in low transmission efficiency. In order to improve the transmission success rate and quality of vehicle network routing transmission, make the routing algorithm more suitable for complex traffic environment, and reduce transmission power consumption to improve energy efficiency, a comprehensive optimized routing transmission algorithm is proposed. Based on the… More >

  • Open Access


    Memory-Occupied Routing Algorithms for Quantum Relay Networks

    Jiangyuan Yao1, Kaiwen Zou2, Zheng Jiang2, Shuhua Weng1, Deshun Li1,*, Yahui Li3, Xingcan Cao4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5929-5946, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.031284

    Abstract Quantum transmission experiments have shown that the successful transmission rate of entangled quanta in optical fibers decreases exponentially. Although current quantum networks deploy quantum relays to establish long-distance connections, the increase in transmission distance and entanglement switching costs still need to be considered when selecting the next hop. However, most of the existing quantum network models prefer to consider the parameters of the physical layer, which ignore the influence factors of the network layer. In this paper, we propose a meshy quantum network model based on quantum teleportation, which considers both network layer and physical… More >

  • Open Access


    Throughput Analysis of HARQ Scheme Based on Full-Duplex Two-Way AF SWIPT Relay

    Xiaoye Shi1,*, Fei Ding1,2, Haiting Zhu1, Zhaowei Zhang1, Lei Zhang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 4819-4830, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.018637

    Abstract The simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) relay system is one of the emerging technologies. Xiaomi Corporation and Motorola Inc. recently launched indoor wireless power transfer equipment is one of the most promising applications. To tap the potential of the system, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is introduced into the SWIPT relay system. Firstly, the time slot structure of HARQ scheme based on full duplex two-way amplify and forward (AF) SWIPT relay is given, and its retransmission status is analyzed. Secondly, the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio and outage probability of various states are calculated by More >

  • Open Access


    CEER: Cooperative Energy-Efficient Routing Mechanism for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Clusters

    Sayyed Mudassar Shah1, Tariq Hussain2, Babar Shah3, Farman Ali4, Khalid Zaman1, Kyung-Sup Kwak5,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2587-2602, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034489

    Abstract Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) aim to find varied offshore ocean monitoring and exploration applications. In most of these applications, the network is composed of several sensor nodes deployed at different depths in the water. Sensor nodes located at depth on the seafloor cannot invariably communicate with nodes close to the surface level; these nodes need multi-hop communication facilitated by a suitable routing scheme. In this research work, a Cluster-based Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing (CEER) mechanism for UWSNs is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the Co-UWSN and LEACH mechanisms. The optimal role of clustering… More >

  • Open Access


    Secrecy Outage Probability for Two-Way Integrated Satellite Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Relay Networks with Hardware Impairments

    Xiaoting Ren1, Kefeng Guo2,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.3, pp. 2515-2530, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.024857

    Abstract In this paper, we investigate the secrecy outage performance for the two-way integrated satellite unmanned aerial vehicle relay networks with hardware impairments. Particularly, the closed-form expression for the secrecy outage probability is obtained. Moreover, to get more information on the secrecy outage probability in a high signal-to-noise regime, the asymptotic analysis along with the secrecy diversity order and secrecy coding gain for the secrecy outage probability are also further obtained, which presents a fast method to evaluate the impact of system parameters and hardware impairments on the considered network. Finally, Monte Carlo simulation results are More >

  • Open Access


    Cooperative NOMA Based on OAM Transmission for Beyond 5G Applications

    Mohammad Alkhawatrah*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1187-1197, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.030699

    Abstract Cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is heavily studied in the literature as a solution for 5G and beyond 5G applications. Cooperative NOMA transmits a superimposed version of all users’ messages simultaneously with the aid of a relay, after that, each user decodes its own message. Accordingly, NOMA is deemed as a spectral efficient technique. Another emerging technique exploits orbital angular momentum (OAM), where OAM is an attractive character of electromagnetic waves. OAM gathered a great deal of attention in recent years (similar to the case with NOMA) due to its ability to enhance electromagnetic spectrum… More >

  • Open Access


    Health Data Availability Protection: Delta-XOR-Relay Data Update in Erasure-Coded Cloud Storage Systems

    Yifei Xiao, Shijie Zhou*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.1, pp. 169-185, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021795

    Abstract To achieve the high availability of health data in erasure-coded cloud storage systems, the data update performance in erasure coding should be continuously optimized. However, the data update performance is often bottlenecked by the constrained cross-rack bandwidth. Various techniques have been proposed in the literature to improve network bandwidth efficiency, including delta transmission, relay, and batch update. These techniques were largely proposed individually previously, and in this work, we seek to use them jointly. To mitigate the cross-rack update traffic, we propose DXR-DU which builds on four valuable techniques: (i) delta transmission, (ii) XOR-based data More >

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