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CEER: Cooperative Energy-Efficient Routing Mechanism for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Clusters

Sayyed Mudassar Shah1, Tariq Hussain2, Babar Shah3, Farman Ali4, Khalid Zaman1, Kyung-Sup Kwak5,*

1 Institute of Computer Science & Information Technology, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan
2 High Performance Computing and Networking Institute, National Research Council (ICAR-CNR) Naples, 80131, Italy
3 College of Technological Innovation, Zayed University, Dubai, 19282, UAE
4 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, School of Convergence, College of Computing and Informatics, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 03063, South Korea
5 Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 22212, Korea

* Corresponding Author: Kyung-Sup Kwak. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 45(3), 2587-2602.


Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) aim to find varied offshore ocean monitoring and exploration applications. In most of these applications, the network is composed of several sensor nodes deployed at different depths in the water. Sensor nodes located at depth on the seafloor cannot invariably communicate with nodes close to the surface level; these nodes need multi-hop communication facilitated by a suitable routing scheme. In this research work, a Cluster-based Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing (CEER) mechanism for UWSNs is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the Co-UWSN and LEACH mechanisms. The optimal role of clustering and cooperation provides load balancing and improves the network profoundly. The simulation results using MATLAB show better performance of CEER routing protocol in terms of various parameters as compared to Co-UWSN routing protocol, i.e., the average end-to-end delay of CEER was 17.39, Co-UWSN was 55.819 and LEACH was 70.08. In addition, the average total energy consumption of CEER was 9.273, Co-UWSN was 12.198, and LEACH was 45.33. The packet delivery ratio of CEER was 53.955, CO-UWSN was 42.047, and LEACH was 30.31. The stability period CEER was 130.9, CO-UWSN was 129.3, and LEACH was 119.1. The obtained results maximized the lifetime and improved the overall performance of the CEER routing protocol.


Cite This Article

S. M. Shah, T. Hussain, B. Shah, F. Ali, K. Zaman et al., "Ceer: cooperative energy-efficient routing mechanism for underwater wireless sensor networks using clusters," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 45, no.3, pp. 2587–2602, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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