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Search Results (18)
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Rao Algorithms-Based Structure Optimization for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Shereen K. Refaay1, Samia A. Ali2, Moumen T. El-Melegy2, Louai A. Maghrabi3, Hamdy H. El-Sayed1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 873-897, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044982

    Abstract The structural optimization of wireless sensor networks is a critical issue because it impacts energy consumption and hence the network’s lifetime. Many studies have been conducted for homogeneous networks, but few have been performed for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. This paper utilizes Rao algorithms to optimize the structure of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks according to node locations and their initial energies. The proposed algorithms lack algorithm-specific parameters and metaphorical connotations. The proposed algorithms examine the search space based on the relations of the population with the best, worst, and randomly assigned solutions. The proposed algorithms can be evaluated using any… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Assessment of Nutrient Leaching Losses and Crop Uptake with Organic Fertilization, Water Saving Practices and Reduced Inorganic Fertilizer

    Xiaotong Liu1,#, Muhammad Amjad Bashir2,3,#, Yucong Geng4, Qurat-Ul-Ain Raza2, Abdur Rehim2, Muhammad Aon2, Jianhang Luo1, Ying Zhao1, Xuejun Zhang1,*, Hongbin Liu4,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.5, pp. 1555-1570, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026735

    Abstract

    The increasing world population has forced excessive chemical fertilizer and irrigation to complete the global food demand, deteriorating the water quality and nutrient losses. Short-term studies do not compile the evidences; therefore, the study aimed to identify the effectiveness of reduced doses of inorganic fertilizer and water-saving practices, hence, a six-year experiment (2015–2020) was conducted in China to address the knowledge gap. The experimental treatments were: farmer accustomed fertilization used as control (525:180:30 kg NPK ha−1), fertilizer decrement (450:150:15 kg NPK ha−1), fertilizer decrement + water-saving irrigation (450:150:15 kg NPK ha−1), application of organic and inorganic fertilizer + water-saving irrigation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaching Fraction (LF) of Irrigation Water for Saline Soils Using Machine Learning

    Rab Nawaz Bashir1, Imran Sarwar Bajwa2, Muhammad Waseem Iqbal3,*, Muhammad Usman Ashraf4, Ahmed Mohammed Alghamdi5, Adel A. Bahaddad6, Khalid Ali Almarhabi7

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.2, pp. 1915-1930, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.030844

    Abstract Soil salinity is a serious land degradation issue in agriculture. It is a major threat to agriculture productivity. Extra irrigation water is applied to leach down the salts from the root zone of the plants in the form of a Leaching fraction (LF) of irrigation water. For the leaching process to be effective, the LF of irrigation water needs to be adjusted according to the environmental conditions and soil salinity level in the form of Evapotranspiration (ET) rate. The relationship between environmental conditions and ET rate is hard to be defined by a linear relationship and data-driven Machine learning (ML)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CEER: Cooperative Energy-Efficient Routing Mechanism for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Clusters

    Sayyed Mudassar Shah1, Tariq Hussain2, Babar Shah3, Farman Ali4, Khalid Zaman1, Kyung-Sup Kwak5,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2587-2602, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034489

    Abstract Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) aim to find varied offshore ocean monitoring and exploration applications. In most of these applications, the network is composed of several sensor nodes deployed at different depths in the water. Sensor nodes located at depth on the seafloor cannot invariably communicate with nodes close to the surface level; these nodes need multi-hop communication facilitated by a suitable routing scheme. In this research work, a Cluster-based Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing (CEER) mechanism for UWSNs is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the Co-UWSN and LEACH mechanisms. The optimal role of clustering and cooperation provides load balancing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modification of Wood by Tannin-Furfuryl Alcohol Resins–Effect on Dimensional Stability, Mechanical Properties and Decay Durability

    Mahdi Mubarok1,2, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier1,*, Elham Azadeh1, Firmin Obounou Akong1, Stéphane Dumarçay1, Antonio Pizzi1, Philippe Gérardin1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 505-521, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024872

    Abstract Furfurylation is a well-known wood modification technology. This paper studied the effect of tannin addition on the wood furfurylation. Three kinds of dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, as well as glyoxal as a comparing agent, were used to catalyse the polymerisation of furanic or tannin-furanic solutions during wood modification. Impregnation of furanic or tannin-furanic solution at a certain concentration into the wood followed with curing at 103°C for a specific duration was performed for the wood modification. Different properties of the modified woods like dimensional stability, resistance of treatment to leaching, mechanical properties, decay durability against… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    ESSD: Energy Saving and Securing Data Algorithm for WSNs Security

    Manar M. Aldaseen1, Khaled M. Matrouk1, Laiali H. Almazaydeh2,*, Khaled M. Elleithy3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.2, pp. 3969-3981, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.028520

    Abstract The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are characterized by their widespread deployment due to low cost, but the WSNs are vulnerable to various types of attacks. To defend against the attacks, an effective security solution is required. However, the limits of these networks’ battery-based energy to the sensor are the most critical impediments to selecting cryptographic techniques. Consequently, finding a suitable algorithm that achieves the least energy consumption in data encryption and decryption and providing a highly protected system for data remains the fundamental problem. In this research, the main objective is to obtain data security during transmission by proposing a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development and Field Application of Phosphogypsum-Based Soil Subgrade Stabilizers

    Hongfei Yue1, Aiguo Fang2, Sudong Hua1,*, Zenghuan Gu3, Yu Jia1, Cheng Yang4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2247-2261, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018901

    Abstract A phosphogypsum-based subgrade stabilizer (PBSS) was formulated using industrial by-product phosphogypsum (PG), mixed with slag and calcium-silicon-rich active material (GSR). The active powder (AP) was used to modify PBSS, and PBSS-AP was obtained. PBSS and PBSS-AP were each mixed with 10% silty soil, and cement and lime (CAL: 5% lime + 2% cement) were used as the traditional material for comparative experiments. Samples were cured under standard conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), water stability, volume expansion, and leachate, to explore the stabilization effect of the three solidified materials on silty soil. The results showed that the comprehensive… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Head Cluster Selection in WSN by Human-Based Optimization Techniques

    Hajer Faris1, Musaria Karim Mahmood2, Osama Ahmad Alomari3,*, Ashraf Elnagar4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.3, pp. 5643-5661, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026228

    Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are characterized by their ability to monitor physical or chemical phenomena in a static or dynamic location by collecting data, and transmit it in a collaborative manner to one or more processing centers wirelessly using a routing protocol. Energy dissipation is one of the most challenging issues due to the limited power supply at the sensor node. All routing protocols are large consumers of energy, as they represent the main source of energy cost through data exchange operation. Cluster-based hierarchical routing algorithms are known for their good performance in energy conservation during active data exchange in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    EACR-LEACH: Energy-Aware Cluster-based Routing Protocol for WSN Based IoT

    Sankar Sennan1, Kirubasri1, Youseef Alotaibi2, Digvijay Pandey3,*, Saleh Alghamdi4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2159-2174, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025773

    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent paradigm to improve human lifestyle. Nowadays, number devices are connected to the Internet drastically. Thus, the people can control and monitor the physical things in real-time without delay. The IoT plays a vital role in all kind of fields in our world such as agriculture, livestock, transport, and healthcare, grid system, connected home, elderly people carrying system, cypher physical system, retail, and intelligent systems. In IoT energy conservation is a challenging task, as the devices are made up of low-cost and low-power sensing devices and local processing. IoT networks have significant challenges in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochar can Increase Chinese Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) Yield, Decrease Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching Losses in Intensive Vegetable Soil

    Haijun Sun1,2, Paramsothy Jeyakumar3, Hongdong Xiao2, Xuewen Li2, Jiayou Liu2, Min Yu2, Prabal Bir Jung Rana1, Weiming Shi2,4,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 197-206, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016492

    Abstract

    There are few evidences on the effect of biochar on vegetable yield, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching losses under intensive vegetable production soil. The current field plot scale study evaluated responses of Chinese cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) yield, N and P leaching losses using five N treatments of common N application rate according to local farmers’ practice (N100%), reducing 20% or 40% N fertilizer (N80% and N60%), and reducing 40% N fertilizer but incorporating 10 or 20 t/ha biochar (N60% + BC10 and N60% + BC20). Results showed that N80% and N60% decreased both the cabbage economic and leaf… More >

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