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  • Open Access


    An Intelligent MCGDM Model in Green Suppliers Selection Using Interactional Aggregation Operators for Interval-Valued Pythagorean Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Rana Muhammad Zulqarnain1, Wen-Xiu Ma1,2,3,*, Imran Siddique4, Hijaz Ahmad5,6, Sameh Askar7

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.2, pp. 1829-1862, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.030687

    Abstract Green supplier selection is an important debate in green supply chain management (GSCM), attracting global attention from scholars, especially companies and policymakers. Companies frequently search for new ideas and strategies to assist them in realizing sustainable development. Because of the speculative character of human opinions, supplier selection frequently includes unreliable data, and the interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy soft set (IVPFSS) provides an exceptional capacity to cope with excessive fuzziness, inconsistency, and inexactness through the decision-making procedure. The main goal of this study is to come up with new operational laws for interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy soft numbers (IVPFSNs) and create two interaction… More >

  • Open Access


    Performance Analysis of ACO-OFDM Visible Light Communication System Based on SCMA

    Xiukai Ruan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan2,*

    Journal on Internet of Things, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 215-225, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jiot.2022.038270

    Abstract A SCMA ACO-OFDM downlink visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed. Six users share four spectrum resources, four of which are 4 primary color LED lights. ACO-OFDM technology is used to convert the user’s sparse codebook mapped signal into a positive real value signal that can be carried on the light wave, which can realize high-speed parallel communication. Simulation verifies the feasibility of the system. At the same time, the channel model of visible light communication is constructed, and the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) and channel gain of the visible light channel are systematically analyzed. Finally, the theoretical bit error rate formula… More >

  • Open Access


    Cryptanalysis of 2D-SCMCI Hyperchaotic Map Based Image Encryption Algorithm

    Mohammed S. Alshehri1, Sultan Almakdi1,*, Mimonah Al Qathrady2, Jawad Ahmad3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.2, pp. 2401-2414, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.036152

    Abstract Chaos-based cryptosystems are considered a secure mode of communication due to their reliability. Chaotic maps are associated with the other domains to construct robust encryption algorithms. There exist numerous encryption schemes in the literature based on chaotic maps. This work aims to propose an attack on a recently proposed hyper-chaotic map-based cryptosystem. The core notion of the original algorithm was based on permutation and diffusion. A bit-level permutation approach was used to do the permutation row-and column-wise. The diffusion was executed in the forward and backward directions. The statistical strength of the cryptosystem has been demonstrated by extensive testing conducted… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of Codebook Design Using SCMA Scheme Based on An and Dn Lattices

    G. Rajamanickam1,*, G. Ravi2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.3, pp. 3037-3048, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.029996

    Abstract The sparse code multiple access (SCMA) scheme is a Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) type of scheme that is used to handle the uplink component of mobile communication in the current generation. A need of the 5G mobile network is the ability to handle more users. To accommodate this, the SCMA allows each user to deploy a variety of sub-carrier broadcasts, and several consumers may contribute to the same frequency using superposition coding. The SCMA approach, together with codebook design for each user, is used to improve channel efficiency through better management of the available spectrum. However, developing a codebook with… More >

  • Open Access


    Low Complexity Decoding Algorithm for Uplink SCMA Based on Aerial Spherical Decoding

    Xiaohong Ji1, Junjun Du1, Guoqing Jia1,*, Weidong Fang2,3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.27, No.3, pp. 737-746, 2021, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2021.013009

    Abstract As a new non-orthogonal multiple access technology for 5G massive machine type communication scenario, the sparse code multiple access (SCMA) has greatly improved the spectrum efficiency due to the high connection density. SCMA combines QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) modulation and sparse spreading into a codebook set to obtain forming gain. The user binary bit data is directly mapped into multi-dimensional codewords in the transmitter. The receiver uses the message passing algorithm (MPA) for multi-user detection to achieve efficient decoding. However, MPA is a good solution for SCMA, though its high complexity limits the application in practical systems. In order to… More >

  • Open Access


    Uplink SCMA Codebook Reuse Transmission and Reception Scheme

    Xiaohong Ji1, Junjun Du1, Guoqing Jia1,*, Weidong Fang2,3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 221-231, 2021, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2021.013145

    Abstract Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is a new non-orthogonal multiple access scheme suitable for 5G communication, which can effectively improve spectrum efficiency and support massive connections. Multiple users in the SCMA system realize the sharing of the same time-frequency resources by mapping data into codewords of a special code book (Code Book, CB). A typical SCMA system increases the spectrum utilization to 150%. In order to further improve the system spectrum utilization and increase the number of user connections, this paper proposes an uplink SCMA codebook reuse transmission and reception scheme (CB-Reuse-SCMA), which reuse a codebook to multiple users. The… More >

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