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  • Open Access


    Machine Learning Empowered Security and Privacy Architecture for IoT Networks with the Integration of Blockchain

    Sohaib Latif1,*, M. Saad Bin Ilyas1, Azhar Imran2, Hamad Ali Abosaq3, Abdulaziz Alzubaidi4, Vincent Karovič Jr.5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.39, No.2, pp. 353-379, 2024, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2024.047080

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly and impacting almost every aspect of our lives, from wearables and healthcare to security, traffic management, and fleet management systems. This has generated massive volumes of data and security, and data privacy risks are increasing with the advancement of technology and network connections. Traditional access control solutions are inadequate for establishing access control in IoT systems to provide data protection owing to their vulnerability to single-point OF failure. Additionally, conventional privacy preservation methods have high latency costs and overhead for resource-constrained devices. Previous machine learning approaches were also unable to detect denial-of-service… More >

  • Open Access


    Preserving Data Secrecy and Integrity for Cloud Storage Using Smart Contracts and Cryptographic Primitives

    Maher Alharby*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2449-2463, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050425

    Abstract Cloud computing has emerged as a viable alternative to traditional computing infrastructures, offering various benefits. However, the adoption of cloud storage poses significant risks to data secrecy and integrity. This article presents an effective mechanism to preserve the secrecy and integrity of data stored on the public cloud by leveraging blockchain technology, smart contracts, and cryptographic primitives. The proposed approach utilizes a Solidity-based smart contract as an auditor for maintaining and verifying the integrity of outsourced data. To preserve data secrecy, symmetric encryption systems are employed to encrypt user data before outsourcing it. An extensive performance analysis is conducted to… More >

  • Open Access


    Enhanced Hybrid Equilibrium Strategy in Fog-Cloud Computing Networks with Optimal Task Scheduling

    Muchang Rao, Hang Qin*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2647-2672, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050380

    Abstract More devices in the Intelligent Internet of Things (AIoT) result in an increased number of tasks that require low latency and real-time responsiveness, leading to an increased demand for computational resources. Cloud computing’s low-latency performance issues in AIoT scenarios have led researchers to explore fog computing as a complementary extension. However, the effective allocation of resources for task execution within fog environments, characterized by limitations and heterogeneity in computational resources, remains a formidable challenge. To tackle this challenge, in this study, we integrate fog computing and cloud computing. We begin by establishing a fog-cloud environment framework, followed by the formulation… More >

  • Open Access


    CMAES-WFD: Adversarial Website Fingerprinting Defense Based on Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy

    Di Wang, Yuefei Zhu, Jinlong Fei*, Maohua Guo

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2253-2276, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049504

    Abstract Website fingerprinting, also known as WF, is a traffic analysis attack that enables local eavesdroppers to infer a user’s browsing destination, even when using the Tor anonymity network. While advanced attacks based on deep neural network (DNN) can perform feature engineering and attain accuracy rates of over 98%, research has demonstrated that DNN is vulnerable to adversarial samples. As a result, many researchers have explored using adversarial samples as a defense mechanism against DNN-based WF attacks and have achieved considerable success. However, these methods suffer from high bandwidth overhead or require access to the target model, which is unrealistic. This… More >

  • Open Access


    Elevating Image Steganography: A Fusion of MSB Matching and LSB Substitution for Enhanced Concealment Capabilities

    Muhammad Zaman Ali1, Omer Riaz1, Hafiz Muhammad Hasnain2, Waqas Sharif2, Tenvir Ali2, Gyu Sang Choi3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2923-2943, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049139

    Abstract In today’s rapidly evolving landscape of communication technologies, ensuring the secure delivery of sensitive data has become an essential priority. To overcome these difficulties, different steganography and data encryption methods have been proposed by researchers to secure communications. Most of the proposed steganography techniques achieve higher embedding capacities without compromising visual imperceptibility using LSB substitution. In this work, we have an approach that utilizes a combination of Most Significant Bit (MSB) matching and Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution. The proposed algorithm divides confidential messages into pairs of bits and connects them with the MSBs of individual pixels using pair matching,… More >

  • Open Access


    A Study on the Explainability of Thyroid Cancer Prediction: SHAP Values and Association-Rule Based Feature Integration Framework

    Sujithra Sankar1,*, S. Sathyalakshmi2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 3111-3138, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048408

    Abstract In the era of advanced machine learning techniques, the development of accurate predictive models for complex medical conditions, such as thyroid cancer, has shown remarkable progress. Accurate predictive models for thyroid cancer enhance early detection, improve resource allocation, and reduce overtreatment. However, the widespread adoption of these models in clinical practice demands predictive performance along with interpretability and transparency. This paper proposes a novel association-rule based feature-integrated machine learning model which shows better classification and prediction accuracy than present state-of-the-art models. Our study also focuses on the application of SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values as a powerful tool for explaining… More >

  • Open Access


    A HEVC Video Steganalysis Method Using the Optimality of Motion Vector Prediction

    Jun Li1,2, Minqing Zhang1,2,*, Ke Niu1, Yingnan Zhang1, Xiaoyuan Yang1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2085-2103, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048095

    Abstract Among steganalysis techniques, detection against MV (motion vector) domain-based video steganography in the HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding) standard remains a challenging issue. For the purpose of improving the detection performance, this paper proposes a steganalysis method that can perfectly detect MV-based steganography in HEVC. Firstly, we define the local optimality of MVP (Motion Vector Prediction) based on the technology of AMVP (Advanced Motion Vector Prediction). Secondly, we analyze that in HEVC video, message embedding either using MVP index or MVD (Motion Vector Difference) may destroy the above optimality of MVP. And then, we define the optimal rate of MVP… More >

  • Open Access


    MAIPFE: An Efficient Multimodal Approach Integrating Pre-Emptive Analysis, Personalized Feature Selection, and Explainable AI

    Moshe Dayan Sirapangi1, S. Gopikrishnan1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2229-2251, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047438

    Abstract Medical Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming more and more common in healthcare. This has created a huge need for advanced predictive health modeling strategies that can make good use of the growing amount of multimodal data to find potential health risks early and help individuals in a personalized way. Existing methods, while useful, have limitations in predictive accuracy, delay, personalization, and user interpretability, requiring a more comprehensive and efficient approach to harness modern medical IoT devices. MAIPFE is a multimodal approach integrating pre-emptive analysis, personalized feature selection, and explainable AI for real-time health monitoring and disease detection. By… More >

  • Open Access


    LDAS&ET-AD: Learnable Distillation Attack Strategies and Evolvable Teachers Adversarial Distillation

    Shuyi Li, Hongchao Hu*, Xiaohan Yang, Guozhen Cheng, Wenyan Liu, Wei Guo

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2331-2359, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047275

    Abstract Adversarial distillation (AD) has emerged as a potential solution to tackle the challenging optimization problem of loss with hard labels in adversarial training. However, fixed sample-agnostic and student-egocentric attack strategies are unsuitable for distillation. Additionally, the reliability of guidance from static teachers diminishes as target models become more robust. This paper proposes an AD method called Learnable Distillation Attack Strategies and Evolvable Teachers Adversarial Distillation (LDAS&ET-AD). Firstly, a learnable distillation attack strategies generating mechanism is developed to automatically generate sample-dependent attack strategies tailored for distillation. A strategy model is introduced to produce attack strategies that enable adversarial examples (AEs) to… More >

  • Open Access


    Research on Performance Optimization of Spark Distributed Computing Platform

    Qinlu He1,*, Fan Zhang1, Genqing Bian1, Weiqi Zhang1, Zhen Li2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2833-2850, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046807

    Abstract Spark, a distributed computing platform, has rapidly developed in the field of big data. Its in-memory computing feature reduces disk read overhead and shortens data processing time, making it have broad application prospects in large-scale computing applications such as machine learning and image processing. However, the performance of the Spark platform still needs to be improved. When a large number of tasks are processed simultaneously, Spark’s cache replacement mechanism cannot identify high-value data partitions, resulting in memory resources not being fully utilized and affecting the performance of the Spark platform. To address the problem that Spark’s default cache replacement algorithm… More >

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