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  • Open Access


    Design Pattern and Challenges of Federated Learning with Applications in Industrial Control System

    Hina Batool1, Jiuyun Xu1,*, Ateeq Ur Rehman2, Habib Hamam3,4,5,6

    Journal on Artificial Intelligence, Vol.6, pp. 105-128, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jai.2024.049912

    Abstract Federated Learning (FL) appeared as an encouraging approach for handling decentralized data. Creating a FL system needs both machine learning (ML) knowledge and thinking about how to design system software. Researchers have focused a lot on the ML side of FL, but have not paid enough attention to designing the software architecture. So, in this survey, a set of design patterns is described to tackle the design issues. Design patterns are like reusable solutions for common problems that come up when designing software architecture. This paper focuses on (1) design patterns such as architectures, frameworks,… More >

  • Open Access


    Modified Elite Opposition-Based Artificial Hummingbird Algorithm for Designing FOPID Controlled Cruise Control System

    Laith Abualigah1,2,3,4,5,6,*, Serdar Ekinci7, Davut Izci7,8, Raed Abu Zitar9

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.38, No.2, pp. 169-183, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.040291

    Abstract Efficient speed controllers for dynamic driving tasks in autonomous vehicles are crucial for ensuring safety and reliability. This study proposes a novel approach for designing a fractional order proportional-integral-derivative (FOPID) controller that utilizes a modified elite opposition-based artificial hummingbird algorithm (m-AHA) for optimal parameter tuning. Our approach outperforms existing optimization techniques on benchmark functions, and we demonstrate its effectiveness in controlling cruise control systems with increased flexibility and precision. Our study contributes to the advancement of autonomous vehicle technology by introducing a novel and efficient method for FOPID controller design that can enhance the driving More >

  • Open Access


    Blockchain-Empowered Token-Based Access Control System with User Reputation Evaluation

    Yuzheng Yang*, Zhe Tu, Ying Liu, Huachun Zhou

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.3, pp. 3163-3184, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.043974

    Abstract Currently, data security and privacy protection are becoming more and more important. Access control is a method of authorization for users through predefined policies. Token-based access control (TBAC) enhances the manageability of authorization through the token. However, traditional access control policies lack the ability to dynamically adjust based on user access behavior. Incorporating user reputation evaluation into access control can provide valuable feedback to enhance system security and flexibility. As a result, this paper proposes a blockchain-empowered TBAC system and introduces a user reputation evaluation module to provide feedback on access control. The TBAC system… More >

  • Open Access


    EduASAC: A Blockchain-Based Education Archive Sharing and Access Control System

    Ronglei Hu1, Chuce He1, Yaping Chi2, Xiaoyi Duan1, Xiaohong Fan1, Ping Xu1, Wenbin Gao1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.3, pp. 3387-3422, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042000

    Abstract In the education archive sharing system, when performing homomorphic ciphertext retrieval on the storage server, there are problems such as low security of shared data, confusing parameter management, and weak access control. This paper proposes an Education Archives Sharing and Access Control (EduASAC) system to solve these problems. The system research goal is to realize the sharing of security parameters, the execution of access control, and the recording of system behaviors based on the blockchain network, ensuring the legitimacy of shared membership and the security of education archives. At the same time, the system can… More >

  • Open Access


    Programmable Logic Controller Block Monitoring System for Memory Attack Defense in Industrial Control Systems

    Mingyu Lee1, Jiho Shin2, Jung Taek Seo3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2427-2442, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041774

    Abstract Cyberattacks targeting industrial control systems (ICS) are becoming more sophisticated and advanced than in the past. A programmable logic controller (PLC), a core component of ICS, controls and monitors sensors and actuators in the field. However, PLC has memory attack threats such as program injection and manipulation, which has long been a major target for attackers, and it is important to detect these attacks for ICS security. To detect PLC memory attacks, a security system is required to acquire and monitor PLC memory directly. In addition, the performance impact of the security system on the… More >

  • Open Access


    An Intelligent Approach for Intrusion Detection in Industrial Control System

    Adel Alkhalil1,*, Abdulaziz Aljaloud1, Diaa Uliyan1, Mohammed Altameemi1, Magdy Abdelrhman2,3, Yaser Altameemi4, Aakash Ahmad5, Romany Fouad Mansour6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2049-2078, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044506

    Abstract Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are computer systems that gather and analyze real-time data, distributed control systems are specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements, and other smaller control systems such as programmable logic controllers are industrial solid-state computers that monitor inputs and outputs and make logic-based decisions. In recent years, there has been a lot of focus on the security of industrial control systems. Due to the advancement in information technologies, the risk of cyberattacks on industrial control system has been drastically increased. Because they are so More >

  • Open Access


    Information Security Evaluation of Industrial Control Systems Using Probabilistic Linguistic MCDM Method

    Wenshu Xu, Mingwei Lin*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 199-222, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041475

    Abstract Industrial control systems (ICSs) are widely used in various fields, and the information security problems of ICSs are increasingly serious. The existing evaluation methods fail to describe the uncertain evaluation information and group evaluation information of experts. Thus, this paper introduces the probabilistic linguistic term sets (PLTSs) to model the evaluation information of experts. Meanwhile, we propose a probabilistic linguistic multi-criteria decision-making (PL-MCDM) method to solve the information security assessment problem of ICSs. Firstly, we propose a novel subscript equivalence distance measure of PLTSs to improve the existing methods. Secondly, we use the Best Worst… More >

  • Open Access


    Energy Efficient and Intelligent Mosquito Repellent Fuzzy Control System

    Aaqib Inam1, Zhu Li1,*, Salah-ud-din Khokhar2, Zubia Zafar3, Muhammad Imran4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 699-715, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039707

    Abstract Mosquitoes are of great concern for occasionally carrying noxious diseases (dengue, malaria, zika, and yellow fever). To control mosquitoes, it is very crucial to effectively monitor their behavioral trends and presence. Traditional mosquito repellent works by heating small pads soaked in repellant, which then diffuses a protected area around you, a great alternative to spraying yourself with insecticide. But they have limitations, including the range, turning them on manually, and then waiting for the protection to kick in when the mosquitoes may find you. This research aims to design a fuzzy-based controller to solve the… More >

  • Open Access


    A Stroke-Limitation AMD Control System with Variable Gain and Limited Area for High-Rise Buildings

    Zuo-Hua Li1, Qing-Gui Wu1,*, Jun Teng1,*, Chao-Jun Chen1,2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.1, pp. 865-884, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029927

    Abstract Collisions between a moving mass and an anti-collision device increase structural responses and threaten structural safety. An active mass damper (AMD) with stroke limitations is often used to avoid collisions. However, a stroke-limited AMD control system with a fixed limited area shortens the available AMD stroke and leads to significant control power. To solve this problem, the design approach with variable gain and limited area (VGLA) is proposed in this study. First, the boundary of variable-limited areas is calculated based on the real-time status of the moving mass. The variable gain (VG) expression at the More >

  • Open Access


    RRCNN: Request Response-Based Convolutional Neural Network for ICS Network Traffic Anomaly Detection

    Yan Du1,2, Shibin Zhang1,2,*, Guogen Wan1,2, Daohua Zhou3, Jiazhong Lu1,2, Yuanyuan Huang1,2, Xiaoman Cheng4, Yi Zhang4, Peilin He5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5743-5759, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.035919

    Abstract Nowadays, industrial control system (ICS) has begun to integrate with the Internet. While the Internet has brought convenience to ICS, it has also brought severe security concerns. Traditional ICS network traffic anomaly detection methods rely on statistical features manually extracted using the experience of network security experts. They are not aimed at the original network data, nor can they capture the potential characteristics of network packets. Therefore, the following improvements were made in this study: (1) A dataset that can be used to evaluate anomaly detection algorithms is produced, which provides raw network data. (2)… More >

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