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  • Open Access


    An Animated GIF Steganography Using Variable Block Partition Scheme

    Maram Abdullah M. Alyahya1, Arshiya S. Ansari1,*, Mohammad Sajid Mohammadi2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.3, pp. 897-914, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.023904

    Abstract The paper presents a novel Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) Steganography system. The algorithm uses an animated (GIF) file format video to apply on, a secured and variable image partition scheme for data embedding. The secret data could be any character text, any image, an audio file, or a video file; that is converted in the form of bits. The proposed method uses a variable partition scheme structure for data embedding in the (GIF) file format video. The algorithm estimates the capacity of the cover (GIF) image frames to embed data bits. Our method built variable partition blocks in an empty… More >

  • Open Access


    Encapsulation of Immature Somatic Embryos of Coffea arabica L. for in Vitro Preservation

    Eliana Arias-Pérez1, Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán1, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli1, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina1, Nancy Ruiz-Lau1,2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1741-1748, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016004

    Abstract The present study aimed to develop a protocol for somatic embryogenesis and encapsulation of coffee embryos (Coffea arabica L.), for the conservation of genotypes with characteristics of commercial interest. Somatic embryos were induced from leaf explants in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 mg · L−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) combined with 2 mg · L−1 of benzyladenine (BA). Somatic embryos (SE) at the globular stage were encapsulated in a sodium alginate matrix; two treatments were tested: MS + 5 mg · L−1 BA + 1 mg · L−1 NAA + 3% (w/v) alginate, and MS + 7 mg · L−1 BA + 5.7 mg · L−1 indoleacetic acid (IAA) + 3% (w/v) alginate. Alginate was… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Encapsulation Combined with Microwave Heating on Self-Healing Performance of Asphalt Mixture

    Benan Shu1,*, Lixian Guo1, Bing Qiu1, Tengyu Yang1, Tao Sun1, Wenjun Qiu1, Min Zhou1, Putao Song2, Yuanyuan Li3, Diego Maria Barbieri4, Shaopeng Wu5,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.10, pp. 1781-1794, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015659

    Abstract As an innovative maintenance technology of asphalt pavement, encapsulated rejuvenator used to improve its self-healing performance has been widely investigated by researchers in recent years. In this work, the selfhealing properties of asphalt mixture with and without encapsulations were comparatively studied considering these parameters: Healing time, healing cycles and microwave heating. Three-point bending strength recovery test and fatigue loading cycles recovery test were conducted for two kinds of encapsulations containing the healing agents present inside the asphalt mixture, namely compartmented Ca-alginate/SiO2 fiber and compartmented Ca-alginate/graphene oxide fiber. The results showed that the optimum healing time was three days. After the… More >

  • Open Access


    Carotenoids: New Applications of “Old” Pigments

    Stefan M. Kolašinac1, Zora P. Dajić Stevanović1,*, Sofija N. Kilibarda1,  Aleksandar Ž. Kostić2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.4, pp. 1041-1062, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015996

    Abstract Carotenoids represent a large group of mainly red, orange, and yellow natural metabolites mainly involved in regulation of many metabolic processes. Carotenoids are beneficial for human health. Current study describes the importance, chemical composition and functioning of carotenoids. It is well known that carotenoids support pigments acting in light absorbance mechanisms during photosynthesis, and are known to protect the chlorophyll molecules from oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. Carotenoids are involved in signaling processes in plants, responses to environmental stresses, pollination, germination and reproduction, and development regulation. As nutrients of strong antioxidant activity that is primarily linked to… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme with Policy Update

    Changji Wang1, *, Yuan Yuan2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.63, No.2, pp. 1031-1041, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.06278

    Abstract Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution to the problem for enforcing fine-grained access control over encrypted data in the cloud. However, when applying CP-ABE to data outsourcing scenarios, we have to address the challenging issue of policy updates because access control elements, such as users, attributes, and access rules may change frequently. In this paper, we propose a notion of access policy updatable ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (APU-CP-ABE) by combining the idea of ciphertext-policy attribute-based key encapsulation and symmetric proxy re-encryption. When an access policy update occurs, data owner is no longer required to download any data for… More >

  • Open Access


    Polymer-based encapsulation of Bacillus subtilis and its effect on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Pacheco-Aguirre J, E Ruiz-Sánchez, A Reyes-Ramírez, J Cristóbal-Alejo, J Tun-Suárez, L Borges-Gómez

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 1-6, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.001

    Abstract Antagonistic bacteria used as biological control agent may loss effectiveness at the field due to environmental factors such as UV radiation, dryness and high temperature. An inexpensive alternative to protect antagonistic bacteria against such factors is the use of microencapsulating agents. In this work, the effect of microencapsulation of Bacillus subtilis with commercial gums on their antagonistic capacity against Meloidogyne incognita was evaluated. The efficiency of the microencapsulation was verified by the difference between the initial and final concentrations of protein release. The effectiveness as antagonist was evaluated against M. incognita in tomato under greenhouse conditions. The microcapsules based on… More >

  • Open Access


    Cryopreservation of Cyrtopodium hatschbachii Pabst (Orchidaceae) immature seeds by encapsulation-dehydration


    BIOCELL, Vol.36, No.1, pp. 31-36, 2012, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2012.36.031

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of the encapsulation-dehydration technique for cryopreservation of Cyrtopodium hastchbachii Pabst seeds. Immature seeds of this species were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. Seeds of five immature pods, 120 days after pollination, were encapsulated in 3% calcium alginate matrix and pretreated in liquid medium supplemented with 0.08 M sucrose (24 h), 0.15 M sucrose (24 h), 0.25 M sucrose (48 h), 0.5 M sucrose (24 h) and 0.75 M sucrose (24 h) in shaker at 60 rpm. Alginate beads were dehydrated 5 h in silicagel and immersed in liquid nitrogen… More >

  • Open Access


    A cryopreservation protocol for immature zygotic embryos of species of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae)


    BIOCELL, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 33-39, 2008, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2008.32.033

    Abstract Tropical Ilex species have recalcitrant seeds. This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Ilex brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. dumosa, I. intergerrima, I. paraguariensis, I. pseudoboxus, I. taubertiana, and I. theezans through cryopreservation of zygotic rudimentary embryos at the heart developmental stage. The embryos were aseptically removed from the seeds and precultured (7 days) in the dark, at 27± 2ºC on solidified (0.8% agar) 1/4MS medium, [consisting of quarterstrength salts and vitamins of Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium] with 3% sucrose and 0.1 mg/l Zeatin. The embryos were then encapsulated in 3% calcium alginate beads and pretreated… More >

  • Open Access


    Defense reactions of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) larval hemocytes

    Ana Carolina Faraldo, Edy Lello

    BIOCELL, Vol.27, No.2, pp. 197-203, 2003, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2003.27.197

    Abstract The defense reactions against biological (Histoplasma capsulatum and Escherichia coli) and non-biological materials (China ink and nylon thread) were tested in vivo in third instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis. The cellular defense performed by larval hemocytes was observed under electron microscopy. China ink particles were phagocytosed by granular cells 5 h after injection. E. coli cells were internalized by granular cells as early as 5 min after injection and totally cleared 180 min post-injection, when many hemocytes appeared disintegrated and others in process of recovering. H. capsulatum yeasts provoked, 24 h after being injected, the beginning of nodule formation. Nylon… More >

  • Open Access


    Encapsulation of Pt-labelled DNA Molecules inside Carbon Nanotubes

    Daxiang Cui1, Cengiz S. Ozkan2, Sathyajith Ravindran3, Yong Kong1, Huajian Gao1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 113-122, 2004, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2004.001.113

    Abstract Experiments on encapsulating Pt--labelled DNA molecules inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were performed under temperature and pressure conditions of 400K and 3 Bar. The DNA-CNT hybrids were purified via agarose gel electrophoresis and analyzed via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that the Pt-labelled DNA molecules attached to the outside walls of CNTs could be removed by electrophoresis. The HR-TEM and EDX results demonstrated that 2-3% of the Pt-labelled DNA molecules were successfully encapsulated inside the MWCNTs. The experimental study complements our previous molecular dynamics simulations on encapsulation of single stranded… More >

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