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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Predicting The Onset of Asphaltene Precipitation by Virial EOS

    S. Sabbaghi1, M. Shariaty-Niassar2, Sh. Ayatollahi1, A. Jahanmiri1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 113-124, 2008, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2008.004.113

    Abstract In this study, the Onset of Asphaltene Precipitation is predicted by a modified Virial equation of state. The bases of quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics are used to evaluate the potential energy and intermolecular forces related to asphaltene molecules. The Virial equation of state is modified using group-contribution-methods for asphaltenes, which are assumed to be polymeric-like compounds consisting of aggregates of monodisperse asphaltene monomers. It is shown how the modified Virial equation of state with the Peneloux correction leads to estimate the molar volume and solubility parameter. These parameters are also compared successfully with results provided by the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computer Modelling of the Energy Distribution within Wood throughout Microwave Processing

    M. Daian1, A. Taube2, G. Torgovnikov3, G. Daian4, Y. Shramkov5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 165-172, 2008, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2008.008.165

    Abstract Microwave wood modification and treatment technologies become more and more essential within the wood industry due to their technical and economical advantages. Microwave processing of wood involves many complicated physical phenomena and requires a very careful control of variables (such as intensity of microwave power, loading period, maximum temperature, etc.) in order to reduce structural deformations of the processed wood. To optimise and minimise the project design engineers' work, modelling and simulation of the microwave energy-wood interaction represents an indispensable tool.
    This research work has been undertaken with the aim to design and optimise microwave applicators for microwave pre-drying… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluations of the BGA Solder Ball Shape by Using Energy Method

    Heng Cheng Lin1,2, Chieh Kung3, Rong Sheng Chen2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 43-50, 2007, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2007.006.043

    Abstract Presented herein are the evaluation results of the BGA solder ball shape using energy method, two types of solder, viz. Sn37Pb and Sn80Pb, are selected .The geometry of the solder bump is firstly estimated using free computer software, the Surface Evolver, an interactive program which is an energy-based approach for the study of liquid droplet surfaces shaped by surface tension and other energies. The solder bump is then numerically constructed in a finite element model that simulates a BGA package. The influences of both upper and bottom solder pad radii, the surface tension on the balls, and the external load… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Rate Polling: Improve the Performance of Energy Harvesting Backscatter Wireless Networks

    Yu Han1,*, Wenxian Zheng2, Guangjun Wen1, Chu Chu1, Jian Su3, Yibo Zhang4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 795-812, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05719

    Abstract In recent years, Researchers have proposed the concept of Energy Harvesting Backscatter Wireless Networks (EHBWN). EHBWN usually consists of one sink and several backscatter nodes. Backscatter nodes harvest energy from their environment and communicate with sink through backscattering the carrier wave transmitted by sink. Although a certain amount of access protocols for Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks have been present, they usually do not take the sink’s receiver sensitivity into account, which makes those protocols unsuitable in practice. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the backscatter channel link budget and the relationship between the effective communication range and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Energy-Efficient Protocol Using an Objective Function & Random Search with Jumps for WSN

    Mohammed Kaddi1,3,*, Khelifa Benahmed2, Mohammed Omari3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 603-624, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05341

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have hardware and software limitations and are deployed in hostile environments. The problem of energy consumption in WSNs has become a very important axis of research. To obtain good performance in terms of the network lifetime, several routing protocols have been proposed in the literature. Hierarchical routing is considered to be the most favorable approach in terms of energy efficiency. It is based on the concept parent-child hierarchy where the child nodes forward their messages to their parent, and then the parent node forwards them, directly or via other parent nodes, to the base station (sink).… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Efficient Construction of B-Spline Curves with Minimal Internal Energy

    Gang Xu1,*, Yufan Zhu1, Lishan Deng1, Guozhao Wang2, Bojian Li1, Kin-chuen Hui3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 879-892, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.03752

    Abstract In this paper, we propose an efficient method to construct energy-minimizing B-spline curves by using discrete mask method. The linear relations between control points are firstly derived for different energy-minimization problems, then the construction of B-spline curve with minimal internal energy can be addressed by solving a sparse linear system. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the linear system are also proved. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed approach, and its application in G1 blending curve construction is also presented. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Stability of Anionic States of Thymine-Glycine Dimers with Excess Electron

    Yugai Huang 1, 2, *

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.3, pp. 485-494, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.03112

    Abstract It has been demonstrated that low energy electrons (LEEs) can induce serious DNA damages including bases loss and even single and double strand breaks. Experiments also showed that LEE induced DNA damages will be reduced with the presence of amino acids. For understanding of the protection of amino acids to DNA, the stability of 6 kinds of thymine and glycine (T-g) dimers with planar configurations with an excess electron were studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. The results show that, when the excess electron is vertically attached, all the dimers become more active with higher energy. After re-optimization, 4… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Dual-spline Approach to Load Error Repair in a HEMS Sensor Network

    Xiaodong Liu1, Qi Liu1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.2, pp. 179-194, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.04025

    Abstract In a home energy management system (HEMS), appliances are becoming diversified and intelligent, so that certain simple maintenance work can be completed by appliances themselves. During the measurement, collection and transmission of electricity load data in a HEMS sensor network, however, problems can be caused on the data due to faulty sensing processes and/or lost links, etc. In order to ensure the quality of retrieved load data, different solutions have been presented, but suffered from low recognition rates and high complexity. In this paper, a validation and repair method is presented to detect potential failures and errors in a domestic… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Speech Resampling Detection Based on Inconsistency of Band Energy

    Zhifeng Wang1, Diqun Yan1,*, Rangding Wang1, Li Xiang1, Tingting Wu1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.56, No.2, pp. 247-259, 2018, DOI: 10.3970/cmc.2018.02902

    Abstract Speech resampling is a typical tempering behavior, which is often integrated into various speech forgeries, such as splicing, electronic disguising, quality faking and so on. By analyzing the principle of resampling, we found that, compared with natural speech, the inconsistency between the bandwidth of the resampled speech and its sampling ratio will be caused because the interpolation process in resampling is imperfect. Based on our observation, a new resampling detection algorithm based on the inconsistency of band energy is proposed. First, according to the sampling ratio of the suspected speech, a band-pass Butterworth filter is designed to filter out the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Joint Bearing Mechanism of Coal Pillar and Backfilling Body in Roadway Backfilling Mining Technology

    Zhengzheng Cao1, Ping Xu1,*, Zhenhua Li2, Minxia Zhang1, Yu Zhao1, Wenlong Shen2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.54, No.2, pp. 137-159, 2018, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2018.054.137

    Abstract In the traditional mining technology, the coal resources trapped beneath surface buildings, railways, and water bodies cannot be mined massively, thereby causing the lower coal recovery and dynamic disasters. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, the roadway backfilling mining technology is developed and the joint bearing mechanism of coal pillar and backfilling body is presented in this paper. The mechanical model of bearing system of coal pillar and backfilling body is established, by analyzing the basic characteristics of overlying strata deformation in roadway backfilling mining technology. According to the Ritz method in energy variation principle, the elastic solution expression… More >

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