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  • Open Access


    A Vanillin-Derived, DOPO-Contained Bisphenol as a Reactive Flame Retardant for High-Performance Epoxy Thermosets

    Li Wang1,2,#, Rongbai Tong3,#, Juanli Wang1,2,*, Jintao Wan1,2,*, Yuhu Li1,2, Pujun Jin1,2, Daodao Hu1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1349-1364, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019372

    Abstract Quest for bio-based halogen-free green flame retardant has attracted many concerns in recent years. Herein a reactive functional flame retardant containing phosphorus VDP is synthesized from vanillin, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophene-10-oxide (DOPO) and phenol via a facile way. VDP is characterized with 1H NMR, 31P NMR, FTIR and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry, and used as a new reactive flame retardant for bisphenol epoxy thermosets. Thermogravimetry analysis shows that when the VDP loading is only 0.5P% (based on phosphorus content), the residue increases from 14.2% to 21.1% at 750°C in N2 compare with neat DGEBA. Correspondingly, the limit oxygen index increased to 29.6%,… More >

  • Open Access


    Fiber Loading of Date Palm and Kenaf Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Tensile, Impact and Morphological Properties

    Syed Waheedullah Ghori1,*, G. Srinivasa Rao2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.7, pp. 1283-1292, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014987

    Abstract Date palm fiber (DPF) and kenaf fiber were reinforced in epoxy having various fiber loading 40%, 50%, and 60% by weight. These hybrid samples were manufactured by hot press technique and then characterized for tensile, impact, and morphological behavior to evaluate the ratio of fibers in the hybrid composites; the addition of kenaf improved the tensile properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed the interfacial bonding of fiber/matrix, and dispersion and void content in composites. Impact test studies reflected the effect of natural fiber with epoxy, level of stress transfer from matrix to reinforced material, and reinforced material’s role in absorbing… More > Graphic Abstract

    Fiber Loading of Date Palm and Kenaf Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Tensile, Impact and Morphological Properties

  • Open Access


    Component Optimization and Seepage Simulation Method of Resin Based Permeable Brick

    Xiaofu Wang1,*, Xiong Zhang1, Yan He2, Chunming Lian3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.8, pp. 947-968, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011327

    Abstract In order to solve the problem of urban surface runoff, it is necessary to study permeable brick deeply. Tensile test and DMA test were used to study the binder material of permeable brick, and a material with the best mechanical properties was selected as the binder of resin based permeable brick; The permeable brick with single gradation and continuous gradation and porosity of 0.1–0.5 gradient is constructed by 3D modeling method. The particle composition and the seepage simulation results of permeable brick under different design parameters were analyzed; A resin-based permeable brick with micro-pores was prepared using the selected binder… More >

  • Open Access


    Bio-Based Hyperbranched Toughener From Tannic Acid and Its Enhanced Solvent-Free Epoxy Resin with High Performance

    Jie Xu1,3, Jiayao Yang1, Peng Lin2, Xiaohuan Liu1,*, Jinjie Zhang1, Shenyuan Fu1,*, Yuxun Tang2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1333-1346, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07905

    Abstract It is essential to design economic and efficient tougheners to prepare high-performance epoxy resin; however, this has remained a huge challenge. Herein, an eco-friendly, low-cost, and facile-fabricated bio-based hyperbranched toughener, carboxylic acid-functionalized tannic acid (CATA), was successfully prepared and applicated to the preparation of solvent-free epoxy resins. The mechanical performance, morphology, structural characterization, and thermal characterization of toughened epoxy resin system were studied. The toughened epoxy resin system with only 1.0wt% CATA reached the highest impact strength, 111% higher than the neat epoxy resin system. Notably, the tensile strength and elongation at break of toughened epoxy resin systems increased moderately… More >

  • Open Access


    Recent Development of Cardanol Based Polymer Materials-A Review

    Puyou Jia1, Fei Song1, Qiaoguang Li2,*, Haoyu Xia3, Mei Li1,*, Xugang Shu2, Yonghong Zhou1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.7, pp. 601-619, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07011

    Abstract Polymers from renewable resources are receiving tremendous attention due to the increasing concerns on the depletion of fossil oils and deteriorated environments. Cardanol, as an abundant and renewable chemical raw material, has been widely used for the production of renewable polymer materials via converting into various of chemical monomers with active functional groups. This comprehensive review deals with various aspects of cardanol as a starting material the preparing various polymer and polymer composites such as benzoxazine resins, phenolic resin, polyurethanes, epoxy resin, vinyl ester polymers, polyamide and cyanate ester resins. The assessment of the future prospects for the use of… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Epoxidized Jatropha Oil on the Cure, Thermal, Morphological and Viscoelastic Properties of Epoxy Resins

    A. Sammaiah1, K. V. Padmaja1, K. I. Suresh*,2, R. B. N. Prasad1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 113-122, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634118

    Abstract This article reports the effect of epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) on the thermal, cure and viscoelastic properties of epoxy resins. Epoxidized jatropha oil with an oxirane value of 5.0 was prepared and epoxy formulations containing different concentrations of EJO were evaluated for cure, morphology, thermal and viscoelastic properties. The curing temperature of the formulations increased with increasing EJO content. The glass transition temperature of the cured films decreased from 56 °C for unmodified epoxy resin to 23 °C for the sample with 60 wt% EJO reactive diluent, suggesting good plasticizing action. The thermal decomposition was only marginally affected. More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Moisture Diffusion in Permeable Particle-Reinforced Epoxy Resins Using Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Hybrid Moisture Element Method

    D.S. Liu1,2, Z.H. Fong1, I.H. Lin1, Z.W. Zhuang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.93, No.6, pp. 441-468, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2013.093.441

    Abstract In this study, we proposed a novel numerical technique to simulate the transient moisture diffusion process and to apply it to heterogeneous composite resins. The method is based on a heterogeneous hybrid moisture element (HHME), with properties determined through an equivalent hybrid moisture capacitance/ conductance matrix that was calculated using the conventional finite element formulation in space discretization and the q-method in time discretization, with similar mass/stiffness properties and matrix condensing operations. A coupled HHME with finite element scheme was developed and implemented in the computer code by using the commercial software MATLAB to analyze the transient moisture diffusion process… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Moisture Diffusion in Heterogeneous Epoxy Resin Containing Multiple Randomly Distributed Particles Using Hybrid Moisture Element Method

    De-Shin Liu1, Zhen-Wei Zhuang1,2, Cho-LiangChung3, Ching-Yang Chen4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 89-114, 2009, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2009.013.089

    Abstract This paper employs a novel numerical technique, designated as the hybrid moisture element method (HMEM), to model and analyze moisture diffusion in a heterogeneous epoxy resin containing multiple randomly distributed particles. The HMEM scheme is based on a hybrid moisture element (HME), whose properties are determined by equivalent moisture capacitance and conductance matrixes calculated using the conventional finite element formulation. A coupled HME-FE scheme is developed and implemented using the commercial FEM software ABAQUS. The HME-FE scheme is then employed to analyze the moisture diffusion characteristics of a heterogeneous epoxy resin layer containing particle inclusions. The analysis commences by comparing… More >

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