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  • Open Access


    AI Fairness–From Machine Learning to Federated Learning

    Lalit Mohan Patnaik1,5, Wenfeng Wang2,3,4,5,6,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.2, pp. 1203-1215, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029451

    Abstract This article reviews the theory of fairness in AI–from machine learning to federated learning, where the constraints on precision AI fairness and perspective solutions are also discussed. For a reliable and quantitative evaluation of AI fairness, many associated concepts have been proposed, formulated and classified. However, the inexplicability of machine learning systems makes it almost impossible to include all necessary details in the modelling stage to ensure fairness. The privacy worries induce the data unfairness and hence, the biases in the datasets for evaluating AI fairness are unavoidable. The imbalance between algorithms’ utility and humanization has further reinforced such worries.… More >

  • Open Access


    A Formal Model for Analyzing Fair Exchange Protocols Based on Event Logic

    Ke Yang1, Meihua Xiao2,*, Zehuan Li1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.3, pp. 2641-2663, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.031458

    Abstract Fair exchange protocols play a critical role in enabling two distrustful entities to conduct electronic data exchanges in a fair and secure manner. These protocols are widely used in electronic payment systems and electronic contract signing, ensuring the reliability and security of network transactions. In order to address the limitations of current research methods and enhance the analytical capabilities for fair exchange protocols, this paper proposes a formal model for analyzing such protocols. The proposed model begins with a thorough analysis of fair exchange protocols, followed by the formal definition of fairness. This definition accurately captures the inherent requirements of… More >

  • Open Access


    Fairness-Aware Harvested Energy Efficiency Algorithm for IRS-Aided Intelligent Sensor Networks with SWIPT

    Yingying Chen1, Weiqiang Tan2, Shidang Li3,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.137, No.3, pp. 2675-2691, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.028533

    Abstract In this paper, a novel fairness-aware harvested energy efficiency-based green transmission scheme for wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) aided sensor networks is developed for active beamforming of multiantenna transmitter and passive beamforming at intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS). By optimizing the active beamformer assignment at the transmitter in conjunction with the passive beamformer assignment at the IRS, we aim to maximize the minimum harvested energy efficiency among all the energy receivers (ER) where information receivers (IR) are bound to the signal-interference-noise-ratio (SINR) and the maximum transmitted power of the transmitter. To handle the non-convex problem, both semi-definite relaxation (SDR) and… More >

  • Open Access


    Two-Stage Optimal Dispatching of Wind Power-Photovoltaic-Solar Thermal Combined System Considering Economic Optimality and Fairness

    Weijun Li1, Xin Die2, Zhicheng Ma3, Jinping Zhang3, Haiying Dong1,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.4, pp. 1001-1022, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.024426

    Abstract Aiming at the problems of large-scale wind and solar grid connection, how to ensure the economy of system operation and how to realize fair scheduling between new energy power stations, a two-stage optimal dispatching model of wind power-photovoltaic-solar thermal combined system considering economic optimality and fairness is proposed. Firstly, the first stage dispatching model takes the overall economy optimization of the system as the goal and the principle of maximizing the consumption of wind and solar output, obtains the optimal output value under the economic conditions of each new energy station, and then obtains the maximum consumption space of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Two-Stage Optimal Dispatching of Wind Power-Photovoltaic-Solar Thermal Combined System Considering Economic Optimality and Fairness

  • Open Access


    A Load-Fairness Prioritization-Based Matching Technique for Cloud Task Scheduling and Resource Allocation

    Abdulaziz Alhubaishy1,*, Abdulmajeed Aljuhani2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2461-2481, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.032217

    Abstract In a cloud environment, consumers search for the best service provider that accomplishes the required tasks based on a set of criteria such as completion time and cost. On the other hand, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) seek to maximize their profits by attracting and serving more consumers based on their resource capabilities. The literature has discussed the problem by considering either consumers’ needs or CSPs’ capabilities. A problem resides in the lack of explicit models that combine preferences of consumers with the capabilities of CSPs to provide a unified process for resource allocation and task scheduling in a more efficient… More >

  • Open Access


    Cross Layer QoS Aware Scheduling based on Loss-Based Proportional Fairness with Multihop CRN

    K. Saravanan1,*, G. M. Tamilselvan2, A. Rajendran3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.42, No.3, pp. 1063-1077, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.020789

    Abstract As huge users are involved, there is a difficulty in spectrum allocation and scheduling in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). Collision increases when there is no allocation of spectrum and these results in huge drop rate and network performance degradation. To solve these problems and allocate appropriate spectrum, a novel method is introduced termed as Quality of Service (QoS) Improvement Proper Scheduling (QIPS). The major contribution of the work is to design a new cross layer QoS Aware Scheduling based on Loss-based Proportional Fairness with Multihop (QoSAS-LBPFM). In Medium Access Control (MAC) multi-channel network environment mobile nodes practice concurrent broadcast between… More >

  • Open Access


    Sum Rate Maximization-based Fair Power Allocation in Downlink NOMA Networks

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 5099-5116, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022020

    Abstract Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been seen as a promising technology for 5G communication. The performance optimization of NOMA systems depends on both power allocation (PA) and user pairing (UP). Most existing researches provide sub-optimal solutions with high computational complexity for PA problem and mainly focuses on maximizing the sum rate (capacity) without considering the fairness performance. Also, the joint optimization of PA and UP needs an exhaustive search. The main contribution of this paper is the proposing of a novel capacity maximization-based fair power allocation (CMFPA) with low-complexity in downlink NOMA. Extensive investigation and analysis of the joint impact… More >

  • Open Access


    Efficient User Pairing for Performance Enhancement of Downlink NOMA Systems

    Fahad Alraddady*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.42, No.2, pp. 535-544, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021746

    Abstract In this paper, the resource allocation problem for user pairing (UP) in downlink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems is investigated. NOMA allows the use of one subcarrier for more than one user at the same time, thus increases the total capacity of the wireless communication system. However, users pairing is a challenging task in the NOMA systems, because a good channel quality subcarrier should be selected and allocated for the user to enhance the performance of NOMA systems. The proposed UP algorithm aims to enhance the sum rate of the paired users per subcarrier and consequently enhance the total sum… More >

  • Open Access


    Fair and Stable Matching Virtual Machine Resource Allocation Method

    Liang Dai1, AoSong He1, Guang Sun1,3, Yuxing Pan2,*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.32, No.3, pp. 1831-1842, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.022438

    Abstract In order to unify the management and scheduling of cloud resources, cloud platforms use virtualization technology to re-integrate multiple computing resources in the cloud and build virtual units on physical machines to achieve dynamic provisioning of resources by configuring virtual units of various sizes. Therefore, how to reasonably determine the mapping relationship between virtual units and physical machines is an important research topic for cloud resource scheduling. In this paper, we propose a fair cloud virtual machine resource allocation method of using the stable matching theory. Our allocation method considers the allocation of resources from both user’s demand and cloud… More >

  • Open Access


    Proportional Fairness Based Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

    Abolfazl Mehbodniya1, Surbhi Bhatia2, Arwa Mashat3, Mohanraj Elangovan4,*, Sudhakar Sengan5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.3, pp. 1071-1082, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021529

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an independent device that comprises a discrete collection of Sensor Nodes (SN) to sense environmental positions, device monitoring, and collection of information. Due to limited energy resources available at SN, the primary issue is to present an energy-efficient framework and conserve the energy while constructing a route path along with each sensor node. However, many energy-efficient techniques focused drastically on energy harvesting and reduced energy consumption but failed to support energy-efficient routing with minimal energy consumption in WSN. This paper presents an energy-efficient routing system called Energy-aware Proportional Fairness Multi-user Routing (EPFMR) framework in WSN.… More >

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