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  • Open Access


    Electroconductive Composites Containing Nanocellulose, Nanopolypyrrole, and Silver Nanoparticles

    Samir Kamel1,*, Ahmed A. Haroun2, Amany M. El-Nahrawy3, Mohamed A. Diab1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 193-203, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00144

    Abstract In this work, conducting composites of nanocellulose (NC)/polypyrrole nanoparticles (NPPy) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), i.e., NC/NPPyAg, were synthesized for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, via in situ emulsion polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of surfactant dopants. The AgNPs acted as an oxidizing agent to simultaneously incorporate nanoparticles into the prepared composites. The structures and morphologies of the prepared composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis Spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) techniques. Additionally, the prepared composites were characterized More >

  • Open Access


    Isolation and Characterization of Nanocellulose Obtained from Industrial Crop Waste Resources by Using Mild Acid Hydrolysis

    Galia Moreno, Karla Ramirez, Marianelly Esquivel, Guillermo Jimenez*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 362-369, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634167

    Abstract Cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and nanocellulose were prepared from three agricultural waste resources: pineapple leaf (PALF), banana rachis (BR), and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Each waste resource was first converted into microcrystalline cellulose which was subsequently converted into cellulose nanoparticles by using mild (30% w/v) and strong (60% w/v) sulfuric acid concentrations for extraction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize each waste resource and extracted cellulosic materials. Furthermore, nanocelluloses were studied by zeta potential, size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellulose nanowhiskers were successfully obtained and More >

  • Open Access


    Carbon Nanotube/Cellulose Nanocrystal Hybrid Conducting Thin Films

    Christophe Olivier1,2, Jean Bruno Mougel1,2, Patricia Bertoncini1, Celine Moreau2, Isabelle Capron2, Bernard Cathala2, Olivier Chauvet1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 237-241, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634168

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have a high ability to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous media and to form hybrids. These hybrids are used to grow layer-by-layer thin films of controlled thickness. Thanks to the presence of SWNTs, these films are conducting. In this article, we describe the process by which the CNC/SWNT hybrids are obtained and discuss the electrical properties of the hybrid-based layer-by-layer films. More >

  • Open Access


    Enzymatic Conversion of Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Platform for the Production of Ethanol, Enzymes and Nanocellulose

    Cristiane S. Farinas*, José Manoel Marconcini, Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 203-216, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.6341578

    Abstract The conversion of sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass into fuels, chemicals and high-value materials using the biochemical pathway is considered the most sustainable alternative for the implementation of future biorefineries. Actually, the first large-scale cellulosic ethanol plants that have started operating worldwide apply the enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert biomass into simple sugars that are fermented to ethanol by yeasts. However, several technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to obtain commercially competitive products. This review describes current challenges and perspectives regarding the enzymatic hydrolysis step for processing sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass within the biorefinery. Recent More >

  • Open Access


    Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper

    S.H. Hassan1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1*, T.S. Velayutham2*, Lindong Zhai3, Hyun Chan Kim3, Jaehwan Kim3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634173

    Abstract Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of the Nanocomposites from Chemically Modified Nanocellulose and Poly(lactic acid)

    Liqing Wei1, Shupin Luo2, Armando G. McDonald2, Umesh P. Agarwal1, Kolby C. Hirth1, Laurent M. Matuana3, Ronald C. Sabo1* , Nicole M. Stark1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 410-422, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634144

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable and sustainable filler for polymeric nanocomposites. However, their high hydrophilicity limits their use with hydrophobic polymer for composite materials. In this study, freeze-dried CNCs were modified by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester to reduce the hydrophilicity. The transesterified CNCs (CNCFE) were compounded with PLA into nanocomposites. CNCFE with long-chain hydrocarbons plays a role as plasticizer. Increasing CNCFE loadings resulted in clear plasticizing effects. Lower Tg and Tm were achieved for CNCFE-based nanocomposites. Plasticizing nanocomposite melt with CNCFE can mitigate the degradation of CNCs during thermal processing. The More >

  • Open Access


    Physico-Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Cellulosic Samples Obtained from Sisal Fibers

    G. Mondragon, C. Peña-Rodriguez, A. Eceiza, A. Arbelaiz*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 345-356, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634124

    Abstract In this work, the main chemical reactions conditions of a succession of specific chemical treatments used for the isolation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers were evaluated. The novelty of this work is the study done to analyze the effect of different reaction conditions (time or concentration) in fiber structure and composition as well as in the characteristics of obtained cellulosic samples. In order to achieve this goal different physicochemical, thermal and morphological characterization techniques were used after each chemical treatment and the most suitable reaction conditions were selected for the subsequent treatment. Moreover, the thermal More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Derived from Pineapple Peel Residues

    Melissa Camacho1, Yendry Regina Corrales Ureña*,1, Mary Lopretti2, Leonel Bustamante Carballo1, Galia Moreno1, Brian Alfaro1, Jose Roberto Vega Baudrit1,3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 271-279, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634117

    Abstract Pineapple peel biomass was used as raw material for nanocellulose extraction. The raw material is a residue from the Costa Rican fruit industry. The nanocellulose was obtained by a two-step hydrolysis process. Firstly, the cellulose was hydrolyzed with HCl to obtain microcrystalline cellulose. In the second step, the hydrolysis was carried out using H2SO4 to obtain smaller fragments and decrease the lignin content. A timedependent study was carried out to determine the particle size decrease depending on the contact time with the H2SO4. The chemical, thermal and morphological properties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Poly(butylene succinate) Bionanocomposites Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofiber Extracted from Helicteres isora Plant

    Jithin Joy1,2,3, Cintil Jose3, Srirama B. Varanasi4, Lovely Mathew P.2,3, Sabu Thomas2, Srikanth Pilla1,5*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 351-364, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634128

    Abstract Isora nanofibers (INF) were produced by a combined thermal-chemical-mechanical method from Helicteres isora plant. The resulting fibers were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which showed a network-like structure with a length of 600 nm, width of 50 nm and an aspect ratio of 12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that chemical treatments progressively removed noncellulosic constituents. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity increased with successive chemical treatments. Using the synthesized isora nanofibers, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared. The nanocomposites were processed using a Brabender twin-screw compounder and an injection… More >

  • Open Access


    Nanocellulose in Spun Continuous Fibers: A Review and Future Outlook

    Craig Clemons

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 327-339, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634112

    Abstract Continuous fibers are commonly manufactured for a wide variety of uses such as filters, textiles, and composites. For example, most fibrous reinforcements (e.g., carbon fiber, glass fiber) for advanced composites are continuous fibers or yarns, fabrics, and preforms made from them. This allows broad flexibility in design and manufacturing approaches by controlling fiber orientation and architecture. However, there has been growing interest in preparing continuous fibers from biobased materials such as plants. Of particular recent interest are nanocelluloses, which are projected to be less expensive than many other nanomaterials and have the potential to be… More >

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