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  • Open Access


    A Dynamic Resource-Aware Routing Protocol in Resource-Constrained Opportunistic Networks

    Aref Hassan Kurd Ali1,*, Halikul Lenando1, Slim Chaoui2,3, Mohamad Alrfaay1,4, Medhat A. Tawfeek5,6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.2, pp. 4147-4167, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020659

    Abstract Recently, Opportunistic Networks (OppNets) are considered to be one of the most attractive developments of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks that have arisen thanks to the development of intelligent devices. OppNets are characterized by a rough and dynamic topology as well as unpredictable contacts and contact times. Data is forwarded and stored in intermediate nodes until the next opportunity occurs. Therefore, achieving a high delivery ratio in OppNets is a challenging issue. It is imperative that any routing protocol use network resources, as far as they are available, in order to achieve higher network performance. In this article, we introduce the… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimal Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Genetic Fuzzy Logic System

    S. Zulaikha Beevi, Abdullah Alabdulatif*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.2, pp. 4107-4122, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020292

    Abstract The wireless sensor network (WSN) is a growing sector in the network domain. By implementing it many industries developed smart task for different purposes. Sensor nodes interact with each other and this interaction technique are handled by different routing protocol. Extending the life of the network in WSN is a challenging issue because energy in sensor nodes are quickly drained. So the overall performance of WSN are degraded by this limitation. To resolve this unreliable low power link, many researches have provided various routing protocols to make the network as dependable and sustainable as possible. While speeding up the data… More >

  • Open Access


    ML-Fresh: Novel Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Networks Using Machine Learning

    Puneet Garg*, Ashutosh Dixit, Preeti Sethi

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.40, No.2, pp. 703-717, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019557

    Abstract Opportunistic Networks (OppNets) is gaining popularity day-by-day due to their various applications in the real-life world. The two major reasons for its popularity are its suitability to be established without any requirement of additional infrastructure and the ability to tolerate long delays during data communication. Opportunistic Network is also considered as a descendant of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (Manets) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), therefore, it inherits most of the traits from both mentioned networking techniques. Apart from its popularity, Opportunistic Networks are also starting to face challenges nowadays to comply with the emerging issues of the large size of… More >

  • Open Access


    Implementation of K-Means Algorithm and Dynamic Routing Protocol in VANET

    Manoj Sindhwani1, Charanjeet Singh1,*, Rajeshwar Singh2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.40, No.2, pp. 455-467, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.018498

    Abstract With the growth of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks, many services delivery is gaining more attention from the intelligent transportation system. However, mobility characteristics of vehicular networks cause frequent disconnection of routes, especially during the delivery of data. In both developed and developing countries, a lot of time is consumed due to traffic congestion. This has significant negative consequences, including driver stress due to increased time demand, decreased productivity for various personalized and commercial vehicles, and increased emissions of hazardous gases especially air polluting gases are impacting public health in highly populated areas. Clustering is one of the most powerful strategies for… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Energy Aware Routing Mechanism for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Wejdan Wasel Aljaghthami*, Mohammad Haseeb Zafar, Afraa Zuhair Attiah

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 1111-1126, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019912

    Abstract The accelerated development of wireless network technology has resulted in the emergence of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), which is a technology commonly used in the medical field. WBAN consists of tiny sensor nodes that interconnect with each other and set in the human body to collect and transmit the patient data to the physician, to monitor the patients remotely. These nodes typically have limited battery energy that led to a shortage of network lifetime. Therefore, energy efficiency is considered one of the most demanding challenges in routing design for WBAN. Many proposed routing mechanisms in WBAN did not cover… More >

  • Open Access


    Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm Based on Small-World Characteristics

    Qian Sun1,2, Gongxue Cheng1,2, Xiaoyi Wang1,2,*, Jiping Xu1,2, Li Wang1,2, Huiyan Zhang1,2, Jiabin Yu1,2, Ning Cao3, Ruichao Wang4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.2, pp. 2749-2759, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018633

    Abstract Water quality sensor networks are widely used in water resource monitoring. However, due to the fact that the energy of these networks cannot be supplemented in time, it is necessary to study effective routing protocols to extend their lifecycle. To address the problem of limited resources, a routing optimization algorithm based on a small-world network model is proposed. In this paper, a small-world network model is introduced for water quality sensor networks, in which the short average path and large clustering coefficient of the model are used to construct a super link. A short average path can reduce the network’s… More >

  • Open Access


    LOA-RPL: Novel Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for the Internet of Things Using Lion Optimization Algorithm to Maximize Network Lifetime

    Sankar Sennan1, Somula Ramasubbareddy2, Anand Nayyar3,4, Yunyoung Nam5,*, Mohamed Abouhawwash6,7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 351-371, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017360

    Abstract Energy conservation is a significant task in the Internet of Things (IoT) because IoT involves highly resource-constrained devices. Clustering is an effective technique for saving energy by reducing duplicate data. In a clustering protocol, the selection of a cluster head (CH) plays a key role in prolonging the lifetime of a network. However, most cluster-based protocols, including routing protocols for low-power and lossy networks (RPLs), have used fuzzy logic and probabilistic approaches to select the CH node. Consequently, early battery depletion is produced near the sink. To overcome this issue, a lion optimization algorithm (LOA) for selecting CH in RPL… More >

  • Open Access


    Q-Learning Based Routing Protocol for Congestion Avoidance

    Daniel Godfrey1, Beom-Su Kim1, Haoran Miao1, Babar Shah2, Bashir Hayat3, Imran Khan4, Tae-Eung Sung5, Ki-Il Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.3, pp. 3671-3692, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017475

    Abstract The end-to-end delay in a wired network is strongly dependent on congestion on intermediate nodes. Among lots of feasible approaches to avoid congestion efficiently, congestion-aware routing protocols tend to search for an uncongested path toward the destination through rule-based approaches in reactive/incident-driven and distributed methods. However, these previous approaches have a problem accommodating the changing network environments in autonomous and self-adaptive operations dynamically. To overcome this drawback, we present a new congestion-aware routing protocol based on a Q-learning algorithm in software-defined networks where logically centralized network operation enables intelligent control and management of network resources. In a proposed routing protocol,… More >

  • Open Access


    Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Based QoS Aware Clustering with Routing Protocol for WSN

    M. S. Maharajan1, T. Abirami2, Irina V. Pustokhina3, Denis A. Pustokhin4, K. Shankar5,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.3, pp. 2995-3013, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016139

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) started gaining attention due to its wide application in the fields of data collection and information processing. The recent advancements in multimedia sensors demand the Quality of Service (QoS) be maintained up to certain standards. The restrictions and requirements in QoS management completely depend upon the nature of target application. Some of the major QoS parameters in WSN are energy efficiency, network lifetime, delay and throughput. In this scenario, clustering and routing are considered as the most effective techniques to meet the demands of QoS. Since they are treated as NP (Non-deterministic Polynomial-time) hard problem, Swarm… More >

  • Open Access


    A Fault-Handling Method for the Hamiltonian Cycle in the Hypercube Topology

    Adnan A. Hnaif*, Abdelfatah A. Tamimi, Ayman M. Abdalla, Iqbal Jebril

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.1, pp. 505-519, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016123

    Abstract Many routing protocols, such as distance vector and link-state protocols are used for finding the best paths in a network. To find the path between the source and destination nodes where every node is visited once with no repeats, Hamiltonian and Hypercube routing protocols are often used. Nonetheless, these algorithms are not designed to solve the problem of a node failure, where one or more nodes become faulty. This paper proposes an efficient modified Fault-free Hamiltonian Cycle based on the Hypercube Topology (FHCHT) to perform a connection between nodes when one or more nodes become faulty. FHCHT can be applied… More >

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