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  • Open Access


    A Robust Emergency Messages Routing Scheme for Urban VANETs

    Mumtaz Ali Shah1,2,*, Farrukh Zeeshan Khan1, Ghulam Abbas2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2617-2632, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025981

    Abstract Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) play an essential role in enhancing transport infrastructure by making vehicles intelligent and proficient in preventing traffic fatalities. Direction-based greedy protocols pick the next route vehicle for transmitting emergency messages (EMs) depending upon the present location of adjacent vehicles towards sink vehicles by using an optimal uni-directional road traffic approach. Nevertheless, such protocols suffer performance degradation by ignoring the moving directions of vehicles in bi-directional road traffic where topological changes happen continuously. Due to the high number of vehicles, it is essential to broadcast EMs to all vehicles to prevent traffic delays and collisions. A cluster-based… More >

  • Open Access


    EACR-LEACH: Energy-Aware Cluster-based Routing Protocol for WSN Based IoT

    Sankar Sennan1, Kirubasri1, Youseef Alotaibi2, Digvijay Pandey3,*, Saleh Alghamdi4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2159-2174, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025773

    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent paradigm to improve human lifestyle. Nowadays, number devices are connected to the Internet drastically. Thus, the people can control and monitor the physical things in real-time without delay. The IoT plays a vital role in all kind of fields in our world such as agriculture, livestock, transport, and healthcare, grid system, connected home, elderly people carrying system, cypher physical system, retail, and intelligent systems. In IoT energy conservation is a challenging task, as the devices are made up of low-cost and low-power sensing devices and local processing. IoT networks have significant challenges in… More >

  • Open Access


    QoS Aware Multicast Routing Protocol for Video Transmission in Smart Cities

    Khaled Mohamad Almustafa1, Taiseer Abdalla Elfadil Eisa2, Amani Abdulrahman Albraikan3, Mesfer Al Duhayyim4,*, Manar Ahmed Hamza5, Abdelwahed Motwakel5, Ishfaq Yaseen5, Muhammad Imran Babar6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2483-2499, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024688

    Abstract In recent years, Software Defined Networking (SDN) has become an important candidate for communication infrastructure in smart cities. It produces a drastic increase in the need for delivery of video services that are of high resolution, multiview, and large-scale in nature. However, this entity gets easily influenced by heterogeneous behaviour of the user's wireless link features that might reduce the quality of video stream for few or all clients. The development of SDN allows the emergence of new possibilities for complicated controlling of video conferences. Besides, multicast routing protocol with multiple constraints in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) is… More >

  • Open Access


    Modified Optimization for Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

    Marwah Mohammad Almasri1,*, Abrar Mohammed Alajlan2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.3, pp. 1687-1710, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.023240

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) comprise numerous sensor nodes for monitoring specific areas. Great deals of efforts have been achieved to obtain effective routing approaches using clustering methods. Clustering is considered an effective way to provide a better route for transmitting the data, but cluster head selection and route generation is considered as a complicated task. To manage such complex issues and to enhance network lifetime and energy consumption, an energy-effective cluster-based routing approach is proposed. As the major intention of this paper is to select an optimal cluster head, this paper proposes a modified golden eagle optimization (M-GEO) algorithm to… More >

  • Open Access


    Adaptive Multi-Cost Routing Protocol to Enhance Lifetime for Wireless Body Area Network

    Muhammad Mateen Yaqoob1, Waqar Khurshid1, Leo Liu2, Syed Zulqarnain Arif1, Imran Ali Khan1, Osman Khalid1,*, Raheel Nawaz2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 1089-1103, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024798

    Abstract Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technologies are emerging with extensive applications in several domains. Health is a fascinating domain of WBAN for smart monitoring of a patient's condition. An important factor to consider in WBAN is a node's lifetime. Improving the lifetime of nodes is critical to address many issues, such as utility and reliability. Existing routing protocols have addressed the energy conservation problem but considered only a few parameters, thus affecting their performance. Moreover, most of the existing schemes did not consider traffic prioritization which is critical in WBANs. In this paper, an adaptive multi-cost routing protocol is proposed… More >

  • Open Access


    Feature Selection Based on IoT Aware QDA Node Authentication in 5G Networks

    M. P. Haripriya*, P. Venkadesh

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.2, pp. 825-836, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.022940

    Abstract The coming generation in mobile networks is the fifth generation (5G), which appears to be the promoter of the upcoming digital world. 5G is defined by a single piece of cellular access technology or a combination of advanced access technologies. Rather, 5G is a true network assembler that provides consistent support for a slew of novel network topologies. Prior generations provide as a suitable starting point and give support for the security architecture for 5G security. Through authentication and cryptography techniques, many works have tackled the security issues in 3G and 4G networks in an effective manner. However, security of… More >

  • Open Access


    Non-Cooperative Learning Based Routing for 6G-IoT Cognitive Radio Network

    Tauqeer Safdar Malik1,*, Kaleem Razzaq Malik1, Muhammad Sanaullah2, Mohd Hilmi Hasan3, Norshakirah Aziz3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.2, pp. 809-824, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021128

    Abstract Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) has turn up to solve the issue of spectrum congestion occurred due to the wide spread usage of wireless applications for 6G based Internet of Things (IoT) network. The Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to access dynamically the frequency channels owned by the Primary Users (PUs). In this paper, we focus the matter of contention of routing in multi hops setup by the SUs for a known destination in the presence of PUs. The traffic model for routing is generated on the basis of Poison Process of Markov Model. Every SU requires to reduce the end-to-end… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Energy Based Multi-Sensor Object Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Thirumoorthy Palanisamy1,*, Daniyal Alghazzawi2, Surbhi Bhatia3, Areej Abbas Malibari2, Pankaj Dadheech4, Sudhakar Sengan5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 227-244, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.023692

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are spatially distributed to independent sensor networks that can sense physical characteristics such as temperature, sound, pressure, energy, and so on. WSNs have secure link to physical environment and robustness. Data Aggregation (DA) plays a key role in WSN, and it helps to minimize the Energy Consumption (EC). In order to have trustworthy DA with a rate of high aggregation for WSNs, the existing research works have focused on Data Routing for In-Network Aggregation (DRINA). Yet, there is no accomplishment of an effective balance between overhead and routing. But EC required during DA remained unsolved. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Routing Protocol in Underwater Wireless Acoustic Communication Using Non Orthogonal Multiple Access

    J. V. Anand1, R. Praveena2,*, T. R. Ganesh Babu2

    Journal on Internet of Things, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 139-147, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jiot.2021.016747

    Abstract The underwater wireless communication with the complexity of attenuation and low propagation speed makes resource constraints in networking sensor nodes and sink. Underwater Sensor Transmission with Attenuation Calculation using Non Orthogonal Multiple Access (UWSTAC-NOMA) protocol has been proposed. This protocol calculates channel gain along with attenuation in underwater channels and provides internetworking sensor for rate allocation minimizing interference. Successive Interference Cancellation has been used at the receiving sensor to decode the information sent. The network level performance of sensors and increasing the data rate improves the overall throughput. Simultaneously, connecting several sensors to sink based on its depth region of… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of QoS Aware Routing Protocol for IoT Assisted Clustered WSN

    Ashit Kumar Dutta1, S. Srinivasan2, Bobbili Prasada Rao3, B. Hemalatha4, Irina V. Pustokhina5, Denis A. Pustokhin6, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3785-3801, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023657

    Abstract In current days, the domain of Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are combined for enhancing the sensor related data transmission in the forthcoming networking applications. Clustering and routing techniques are treated as the effective methods highly used to attain reduced energy consumption and lengthen the lifetime of the WSN assisted IoT networks. In this view, this paper presents an Ensemble of Metaheuristic Optimization based QoS aware Clustering with Multihop Routing (EMO-QoSCMR) Protocol for IoT assisted WSN. The proposed EMO-QoSCMR protocol aims to achieve QoS parameters such as energy, throughput, delay, and lifetime. The proposed model involves… More >

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