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  • Open Access


    Functional Pattern-Related Anomaly Detection Approach Collaborating Binary Segmentation with Finite State Machine

    Ming Wan1, Minglei Hao1, Jiawei Li1, Jiangyuan Yao2,*, Yan Song3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.3, pp. 3573-3592, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044857

    Abstract The process control-oriented threat, which can exploit OT (Operational Technology) vulnerabilities to forcibly insert abnormal control commands or status information, has become one of the most devastating cyber attacks in industrial automation control. To effectively detect this threat, this paper proposes one functional pattern-related anomaly detection approach, which skillfully collaborates the BinSeg (Binary Segmentation) algorithm with FSM (Finite State Machine) to identify anomalies between measuring data and control data. By detecting the change points of measuring data, the BinSeg algorithm is introduced to generate some initial sequence segments, which can be further classified and merged… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling and TOPSIS-GRA Algorithm for Autonomous Driving Decision-Making Under 5G-V2X Infrastructure

    Shijun Fu1,*, Hongji Fu2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1051-1071, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034495

    Abstract This paper is to explore the problems of intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) autonomous driving decision-making under a 5G-V2X structured road environment. Through literature review and interviews with autonomous driving practitioners, this paper firstly puts forward a logical framework for designing a cerebrum-like autonomous driving system. Secondly, situated on this framework, it builds a hierarchical finite state machine (HFSM) model as well as a TOPSIS-GRA algorithm for making ICV autonomous driving decisions by employing a data fusion approach between the entropy weight method (EWM) and analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) and by employing a model fusion… More >

  • Open Access


    An EFSM-Based Test Data Generation Approach in Model-Based Testing

    Muhammad Luqman Mohd-Shafie1,*, Wan Mohd Nasir Wan Kadir1, Muhammad Khatibsyarbini1, Mohd Adham Isa1, Israr Ghani1, Husni Ruslai2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 4337-4354, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023803

    Abstract Testing is an integral part of software development. Current fast-paced system developments have rendered traditional testing techniques obsolete. Therefore, automated testing techniques are needed to adapt to such system developments speed. Model-based testing (MBT) is a technique that uses system models to generate and execute test cases automatically. It was identified that the test data generation (TDG) in many existing model-based test case generation (MB-TCG) approaches were still manual. An automatic and effective TDG can further reduce testing cost while detecting more faults. This study proposes an automated TDG approach in MB-TCG using the extended… More >

  • Open Access


    Achieving State Space Reduction in Generated Ajax Web Application State Machine

    Nadeem Fakhar Malik1,*, Aamer Nadeem1, Muddassar Azam Sindhu2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 429-455, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.023423

    Abstract The testing of Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) web applications poses novel challenges for testers because Ajax constructs dynamic web applications by using Asynchronous communication and run time Document Object Model (DOM) manipulation. Ajax involves extreme dynamism, which induces novel kind of issues like state explosion, triggering state changes and unreachable states etc. that require more demanding web-testing methods. Model based testing is amongst the effective approaches to detect faults in web applications. However, the state model generated for an Ajax application can be enormous and may be hit by state explosion problem for large… More >

  • Open Access


    EDSM-Based Binary Protocol State Machine Reversing

    Shen Wang1,*, Fanghui Sun1, Hongli Zhang1, Dongyang Zhan1,2, Shuang Li3, Jun Wang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.3, pp. 3711-3725, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016562

    Abstract Internet communication protocols define the behavior rules of network components when they communicate with each other. With the continuous development of network technologies, many private or unknown network protocols are emerging in endlessly various network environments. Herein, relevant protocol specifications become difficult or unavailable to translate in many situations such as network security management and intrusion detection. Although protocol reverse engineering is being investigated in recent years to perform reverse analysis on the specifications of unknown protocols, most existing methods have proven to be time-consuming with limited efficiency, especially when applied on unknown protocol state More >

  • Open Access


    The Virtual Prototype Model Simulation on the Steady-state Machine Performance

    Huanyu Zhao, Guoqiang Wang, Shuai Wang, Ruipeng Yang, He Tian, Qiushi Bi

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 581-592, 2018, DOI:10.31209/2018.100000025

    Abstract Articulated tracked vehicles have high mobility and steering performance. The unique structure of articulated tracked vehicles can avoid the subsidence of tracks caused by high traction from instantaneous braking and steering. In order to improve the accuracy of the steady-state steering of the articulated tracked vehicle, the velocity of both sides of the track and the deflection angle of the articulated point need to match better to achieve the purpose of steering accurately and reduce energy consumption and wear of components. In this study, a virtual prototype model of the articulated tracked vehicle is established… More >

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