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  • Open Access


    Visualization for Explanation of Deep Learning-Based Defect Detection Model Using Class Activation Map

    Hyunkyu Shin1, Yonghan Ahn2, Mihwa Song3, Heungbae Gil3, Jungsik Choi4,*, Sanghyo Lee5,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 4753-4766, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.038362

    Abstract Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN)-based visual inspection has been developed to detect defects on building surfaces automatically. The CNN model demonstrates remarkable accuracy in image data analysis; however, the predicted results have uncertainty in providing accurate information to users because of the “black box” problem in the deep learning model. Therefore, this study proposes a visual explanation method to overcome the uncertainty limitation of CNN-based defect identification. The visual representative gradient-weights class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) method is adopted to provide visually explainable information. A visualizing evaluation index is proposed to quantitatively analyze visual representations; this… More >

  • Open Access



    Amnart Boonloia, Withada Jedsadaratanachaib,*

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.18, pp. 1-15, 2022, DOI:10.5098/hmt.18.20

    Abstract Numerical analysis of fluid flow mechanism and heat transfer in a heat exchanger duct (HXD) with dual-inclined baffles (DIB) are reported. Three DIB types are examined: 1. “Type A” is located at the center of the HXD, 2. “Type B” is located on the upper-lower duct walls (as an orifice) and 3. “Type C” is a combination of the type A and B (as double orifices). The impacts of the ratio of DIB heights (b) to the square duct height (H; b/H) on increased heat transfer and friction loss are analyzed. Laminar flow (Re =… More >

  • Open Access



    A.C. Budimana,*, S. M. Hasheminejadb, Sudirjaa, A. Mitayanic, S. H. Winotod

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.19, pp. 1-6, 2022, DOI:10.5098/hmt.19.9

    Abstract Streamwise development of counter-rotating vortices induced by three different types of chevron Vortex Generators (VGs) placed upstream an Electric Vehicles (EV) dummy battery module is experimentally visualized using a smoke-wire method. From the single chevron reference case, the mushroom-like vortices do not collapse until passing the module. When more chevrons are used in line, the vortices become more prominent. It can also be observed that the vortex sizes and shapes are significantly influenced by the spanwise base length of the chevron. The induced vortices from all three VGs suggest a potential heat transfer augmentation for More >

  • Open Access


    VMCTE: Visualization-Based Malware Classification Using Transfer and Ensemble Learning

    Zhiguo Chen1,2,*, Jiabing Cao1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 4445-4465, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.038639

    Abstract The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) effect has made telecommuting and remote learning the norm. The growing number of Internet-connected devices provides cyber attackers with more attack vectors. The development of malware by criminals also incorporates a number of sophisticated obfuscation techniques, making it difficult to classify and detect malware using conventional approaches. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel visualization-based malware classification system using transfer and ensemble learning (VMCTE). VMCTE has a strong anti-interference ability. Even if malware uses obfuscation, fuzzing, encryption, and other techniques to evade detection, it can be accurately classified into its… More >

  • Open Access


    A Survey on Visualization-Based Malware Detection

    Ahmad Moawad*, Ahmed Ismail Ebada, Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    Journal of Cyber Security, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 169-184, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jcs.2022.033537

    Abstract In computer security, the number of malware threats is increasing and causing damage to systems for individuals or organizations, necessitating a new detection technique capable of detecting a new variant of malware more efficiently than traditional anti-malware methods. Traditional anti-malware software cannot detect new malware variants, and conventional techniques such as static analysis, dynamic analysis, and hybrid analysis are time-consuming and rely on domain experts. Visualization-based malware detection has recently gained popularity due to its accuracy, independence from domain experts, and faster detection time. Visualization-based malware detection uses the image representation of the malware binary More >

  • Open Access


    A 3D Geometry Model of Vocal Tract Based on Smart Internet of Things

    Ming Li1, Kuntharrgyal Khysru2, Haiqiang Shi2,*, Qiang Fang3,*, Jinrong Hu4, Yun Chen5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 783-798, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034687

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) plays an essential role in the current and future generations of information, network, and communication development and applications. This research focuses on vocal tract visualization and modeling, which are critical issues in realizing inner vocal tract animation. That is applied in many fields, such as speech training, speech therapy, speech analysis and other speech production-related applications. This work constructed a geometric model by observation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, providing a new method to annotate and construct 3D vocal tract organs. The proposed method has two advantages compared with previous… More >

  • Open Access


    Visualization Techniques via MLBS for Personnel Management in Major Events

    Yu Su1,2,3, Lingjuan Hou2,3,*, Sinan Li1, Zhaochang Jiang1, Haoran Peng4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 521-536, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.028606

    Abstract Mobile location-based services (MLBS) refer to services around geographic location data. Mobile terminals use wireless communication networks (or satellite positioning systems) to obtain users’ geographic location coordinate information based on spatial databases and integrate with other information to provide users with required location-related services. The development of systems based on MLBS has significance and practical value. In this paper a visualization management information system for personnel in major events based on microservices, namely MEPMIS, is designed and implemented by using MLBS. The system consists of a server and a client app, and it has some… More >

  • Open Access


    Byte-Level Function-Associated Method for Malware Detection

    Jingwei Hao*, Senlin Luo, Limin Pan

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 719-734, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.033923

    Abstract The byte stream is widely used in malware detection due to its independence of reverse engineering. However, existing methods based on the byte stream implement an indiscriminate feature extraction strategy, which ignores the byte function difference in different segments and fails to achieve targeted feature extraction for various byte semantic representation modes, resulting in byte semantic confusion. To address this issue, an enhanced adversarial byte function associated method for malware backdoor attack is proposed in this paper by categorizing various function bytes into three functions involving structure, code, and data. The Minhash algorithm, grayscale mapping, More >

  • Open Access


    Design of a Web Crawler for Water Quality Monitoring Data and Data Visualization

    Ziwen Yu1, Jianjun Zhang1,*, Wenwu Tan1, Ziyi Xiong1, Peilun Li1, Liangqing Meng2, Haijun Lin1, Guang Sun3, Peng Guo4

    Journal on Big Data, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 135-143, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jbd.2022.031024

    Abstract Many countries are paying more and more attention to the protection of water resources at present, and how to protect water resources has received extensive attention from society. Water quality monitoring is the key work to water resources protection. How to efficiently collect and analyze water quality monitoring data is an important aspect of water resources protection. In this paper, python programming tools and regular expressions were used to design a web crawler for the acquisition of water quality monitoring data from Global Freshwater Quality Database (GEMStat) sites, and the multi-thread parallelism was added to More >

  • Open Access


    Identification and Visualization of Spatial and Temporal Trends in Textile Industry

    Umair Yousaf1, Muhammad Asif1, Shahbaz Ahmed1, Noman Tahir1, Azeem Irshad2, Akber Abid Gardezi3, Muhammad Shafiq4,*, Jin-Ghoo Choi4, Habib Hamam5,6,7,8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 4165-4181, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.026607

    Abstract The research volume increases at the study rate, causing massive text corpora. Due to these enormous text corpora, we are drowning in data and starving for information. Therefore, recent research employed different text mining approaches to extract information from this text corpus. These proposed approaches extract meaningful and precise phrases that effectively describe the text's information. These extracted phrases are commonly termed keyphrases. Further, these key phrases are employed to determine the different fields of study trends. Moreover, these key phrases can also be used to determine the spatiotemporal trends in the various research fields.… More >

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