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  • Open Access


    Power Allocation in NOMA-CR for 5G Enabled IoT Networks

    Mohammed Basheri1, Mohammad Haseeb Zafar1,2,3,*, Imran Khan3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.3, pp. 5515-5530, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.027532

    Abstract In the power domain, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) supports multiple users on the same time-frequency resources, assigns different transmission powers to different users, and differentiates users by user channel gains. Multi-user signals are superimposed and transmitted in the power domain at the transmitting end by actively implementing controllable interference information, and multi-user detection algorithms, such as successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed at the receiving end to demodulate the necessary user signals. In contrast to the orthogonal transmission method, the non-orthogonal method can achieve higher spectrum utilization. However, it will increase the receiver complexity. With… More >

  • Open Access


    Enhance Vertical Handover Security During Execution Phase in Mobile Networks

    Omar Khattab*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 3863-3875, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026102

    Abstract The Vertical Handover (VHO) is one of the most vital features provided for the heterogeneous mobile networks. It allows Mobile Users (MUs) to keep ongoing sessions without disruption while they continuously move between different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) such as Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Fifth Generation (5G). In order to fulfill this goal, the VHO must comply to three main phases: starting of collecting the required information and then passing it for decision phase to obtain the best available RAT… More >

  • Open Access


    Feedline Separation for Independent Control of Simultaneously Different Tx/Rx Radiation Patterns

    Akarachai Inthanil, Monthippa Uthansakul*, Peerapong Uthansakul

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2221-2241, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024390

    Abstract The shortcoming of Wi-Fi networks is that one user can access the router at a time. This drawback limits the system throughput and delay. This paper proposes a concept of Simultaneously Different Tx/Rx (SDTR) radiation patterns with only one antenna set at the router. Furthermore, these two patterns have to be simultaneously operated at the same time so that the system delay can be eased. An omni-directional pattern is employed at router for receiving mode so that the router can sense carrier signal from all directions. At the same time, the router launches a directional More >

  • Open Access


    Enhanced Route Optimization for Wireless Networks Using Meta-Heuristic Engineering

    S. Navaneetha Krishnan1, P. Sundara Vadivel2,*, D. Yuvaraj3, T. Satyanarayana Murthy4, Sree Jagadeesh Malla5, S. Nachiyappan6, S. Shanmuga Priya7

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.1, pp. 17-26, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021590

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are commonly used to observe and monitor precise environments. WSNs consist of a large number of inexpensive sensor nodes that have been separated and distributed in different environments. The base station received the amount of data collected by the numerous sensors. The current developments designate that the attentFgion in applications of WSNs has been increased and extended to a very large scale. The Trust-Based Adaptive Acknowledgement (TRAACK) Intrusion-Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is described based on the number of active positive deliveries and The Kalman filter used in Modified More >

  • Open Access


    Efficiency Effect of Obstacle Margin on Line-of-Sight in Wireless Networks

    Murad A. A. Almekhlafi1, Taiseer Abdalla Elfadil Eisa2, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi3,4, Abdelzahir Abdelmaboud5, Manar Ahmed Hamza6,*, Abdelwahed Motwakel6, Ishfaq Yaseen6, Mohammed Rizwanullah6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 227-242, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024356

    Abstract Line-of-sight clarity and assurance are essential because they are considered the golden rule in wireless network planning, allowing the direct propagation path to connect the transmitter and receiver and retain the strength of the signal to be received. Despite the increasing literature on the line of sight with different scenarios, no comprehensive study focuses on the multiplicity of parameters and basic concepts that must be taken into account when studying such a topic as it affects the results and their accuracy. Therefore, this research aims to find limited values that ensure that the signal reaches… More >

  • Open Access


    Milestones of Wireless Communication Networks and Technology Prospect of Next Generation (6G)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Md. Sanwar Hossain2, Abu Jahid3, Muhammad Asghar Khan4, Bong Jun Choi5,*, Samih M. Mostafa6,7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 4803-4818, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023500

    Abstract Since around 1980, a new generation of wireless technology has arisen approximately every 10 years. First-generation (1G) and second-generation (2G) began with voice and eventually introduced more and more data in third-generation (3G) and became highly popular in the fourth-generation (4G). To increase the data rate along with low latency and mass connectivity the fifth-generation (5G) networks are being installed from 2020. However, the 5G technology will not be able to fulfill the data demand at the end of this decade. Therefore, it is expected that 6G communication networks will rise, providing better services through… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis and Modeling of Propagation in Tunnel at 3.7 and 28 GHz

    Md Abdus Samad1,2, Dong-You Choi1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3127-3143, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023086

    Abstract In present-day society, train tunnels are extensively used as a means of transportation. Therefore, to ensure safety, streamlined train operations, and uninterrupted internet access inside train tunnels, reliable wave propagation modeling is required. We have experimented and measured wave propagation models in a 1674 m long straight train tunnel in South Korea. The measured path loss and the received signal strength were modeled with the Close-In (CI), Floating intercept (FI), CI model with a frequency-weighted path loss exponent (CIF), and alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) models, where the model parameters were determined using minimum mean square error (MMSE)… More >

  • Open Access


    Two-Tier Clustering with Routing Protocol for IoT Assisted WSN

    A. Arokiaraj Jovith1, Mahantesh Mathapati2, M. Sundarrajan3, N. Gnanasankaran4, Seifedine Kadry5, Maytham N. Meqdad6, Shabnam Mohamed Aslam7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3375-3392, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022668

    Abstract In recent times, Internet of Things (IoT) has become a hot research topic and it aims at interlinking several sensor-enabled devices mainly for data gathering and tracking applications. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an important component in IoT paradigm since its inception and has become the most preferred platform to deploy several smart city application areas like home automation, smart buildings, intelligent transportation, disaster management, and other such IoT-based applications. Clustering methods are widely-employed energy efficient techniques with a primary purpose i.e., to balance the energy among sensor nodes. Clustering and routing processes are considered… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimization Analysis of Sustainable Solar Power System for Mobile Communication Systems

    Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Raju Kannadasan2, Amir Y. Hassan3, Wael Z. Tawfik4, Mun-Kyeom Kim5,*, Muhammad Asghar Khan6, Ahmad A. A. Solyman7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3243-3255, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022348

    Abstract Cellular mobile technology has witnessed tremendous growth in recent times. One of the challenges facing the operators to extend the coverage of the networks to meet the rising demand for cellular mobile services is the power sources used to supply cellular towers with energy, especially in remote. Thus, switch from the conventional sources of energy to a greener and sustainable power model became a target of the academic and industrial sectors in many fields; one of these important fields is the telecommunication sector. Accordingly, this study aims to find the optimum sizing and techno-economic investigation… More >

  • Open Access


    An Improved Sparrow Search Algorithm for Node Localization in WSN

    R. Thenmozhi1, Abdul Wahid Nasir2, Vijaya Krishna Sonthi3, T. Avudaiappan4, Seifedine Kadry5, Kuntha Pin6, Yunyoung Nam7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 2037-2051, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022203

    Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSN) comprise a set of numerous cheap sensors placed in the target region. A primary function of the WSN is to avail the location details of the event occurrences or the node. A major challenge in WSN is node localization which plays an important role in data gathering applications. Since GPS is expensive and inaccurate in indoor regions, effective node localization techniques are needed. The major intention of localization is for determining the place of node in short period with minimum computation. To achieve this, bio-inspired algorithms are used and node localization… More >

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