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  • Open Access


    Managing Security-Risks for Improving Security-Durability of Institutional Web-Applications: Design Perspective

    Abdulaziz Attaallah1, Abdullah Algarni1, Raees Ahmad Khan2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1849-1865, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013854

    Abstract The advanced technological need, exacerbated by the flexible time constraints, leads to several more design level unexplored vulnerabilities. Security is an extremely vital component in software development; we must take charge of security and therefore analysis of software security risk assumes utmost significance. In order to handle the cyber-security risk of the web application and protect individuals, information and properties effectively, one must consider what needs to be secured, what are the perceived threats and the protection of assets. Security preparation plans, implements, tracks, updates and consistently develops safety risk management activities. Risk management must… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of Pencil Lead Based Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Hot Spring

    Ratha Yeu1, Namhui Ra2, Seong-A Lee3, Yunyoung Nam4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1411-1425, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013761

    Abstract Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes are conductive pads applied to the skin to measure cardiac activity. Ag/AgCl electrodes are the commercial product which widely used to obtain ECGs. When monitoring the ECG in a hot spring, Ag/AgCl electrodes must be waterproofed; however, this is time-consuming, and the adhesive may tear the skin on removal. For solving the problem, we developed the carbon pencil lead (CPL) electrodes for use in hot springs. Both CPL and Ag/AgCl electrodes were connected to ECG100C’s cables. The Performance was evaluated in three conditions as following: hot spring water with and without bubble,… More >

  • Open Access


    A Comprehensive Utility Function for Resource Allocation in Mobile Edge Computing

    Zaiwar Ali1, Sadia Khaf2, Ziaul Haq Abbas2, Ghulam Abbas3, Lei Jiao4, Amna Irshad2, Kyung Sup Kwak5, Muhammad Bilal6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1461-1477, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013743

    Abstract In mobile edge computing (MEC), one of the important challenges is how much resources of which mobile edge server (MES) should be allocated to which user equipment (UE). The existing resource allocation schemes only consider CPU as the requested resource and assume utility for MESs as either a random variable or dependent on the requested CPU only. This paper presents a novel comprehensive utility function for resource allocation in MEC. The utility function considers the heterogeneous nature of applications that a UE offloads to MES. The proposed utility function considers all important parameters, including CPU,… More >

  • Open Access


    A New Database Intrusion Detection Approach Based on Hybrid Meta-Heuristics

    Youseef Alotaibi*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1879-1895, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013739

    Abstract A new secured database management system architecture using intrusion detection systems (IDS) is proposed in this paper for organizations with no previous role mapping for users. A simple representation of Structured Query Language queries is proposed to easily permit the use of the worked clustering algorithm. A new clustering algorithm that uses a tube search with adaptive memory is applied to database log files to create users’ profiles. Then, queries issued for each user are checked against the related user profile using a classifier to determine whether or not each query is malicious. The IDS… More >

  • Open Access


    How Can Lean Manufacturing Lead the Manufacturing Sector during Health Pandemics Such as COVID 19: A Multi Response Optimization Framework

    Abdallah Ali Abdallah*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1397-1410, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013733

    Abstract Lean manufacturing has been used for the last few decades as a process and performance improvement tool. Initially known as Toyota production system (TPS), lean is now used in almost all service and manufacturing sectors to deliver favorable results such as decreased operational cost, increased customer satisfaction, decreased cycle time, and enhanced profits. During the coronavirus disease (COVID 19) pandemic, the manufacturing sector struggled immensely and could not function well even after lockdown was eased in many countries. Many companies found out there are not ready to conform with new regulations made by authorities in… More >

  • Open Access


    Urdu Ligature Recognition System: An Evolutionary Approach

    Naila Habib Khan1,*, Awais Adnan1, Abdul Waheed2,3, Mahdi Zareei4, Abdallah Aldosary5, Ehab Mahmoud Mohamed6,7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1347-1367, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013715

    Abstract Cursive text recognition of Arabic script-based languages like Urdu is extremely complicated due to its diverse and complex characteristics. Evolutionary approaches like genetic algorithms have been used in the past for various optimization as well as pattern recognition tasks, reporting exceptional results. The proposed Urdu ligature recognition system uses a genetic algorithm for optimization and recognition. Overall the proposed recognition system observes the processes of pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, hierarchical clustering, classification rules and genetic algorithm optimization and recognition. The pre-processing stage removes noise from the sentence images, whereas, in segmentation, the sentences are segmented More >

  • Open Access


    Gly-LysPred: Identification of Lysine Glycation Sites in Protein Using Position Relative Features and Statistical Moments via Chou’s 5 Step Rule

    Shaheena Khanum1, Muhammad Adeel Ashraf2, Asim Karim1, Bilal Shoaib3, Muhammad Adnan Khan4, Rizwan Ali Naqvi5, Kamran Siddique6, Mohammed Alswaitti6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 2165-2181, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013646

    Abstract Glycation is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification which assigns sugar molecule and residues to a peptide. It is a clinically important attribute to numerous age-related, metabolic, and chronic diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s, renal failure, etc. Identification of a non-enzymatic reaction are quite challenging in research. Manual identification in labs is a very costly and time-consuming process. In this research, we developed an accurate, valid, and a robust model named as Gly-LysPred to differentiate the glycated sites from non-glycated sites. Comprehensive techniques using position relative features are used for feature extraction. An algorithm named as a… More >

  • Open Access


    3D Head Pose Estimation through Facial Features and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Khalil Khan1, Jehad Ali2, Kashif Ahmad3, Asma Gul4, Ghulam Sarwar5, Sahib Khan6, Qui Thanh Hoai Ta7, Tae-Sun Chung8, Muhammad Attique9,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1757-1770, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013590

    Abstract Face image analysis is one among several important cues in computer vision. Over the last five decades, methods for face analysis have received immense attention due to large scale applications in various face analysis tasks. Face parsing strongly benefits various human face image analysis tasks inducing face pose estimation. In this paper we propose a 3D head pose estimation framework developed through a prior end to end deep face parsing model. We have developed an end to end face parts segmentation framework through deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). For training a deep face parts parsing… More >

  • Open Access


    IWD-Miner: A Novel Metaheuristic Algorithm for Medical Data Classification

    Sarab AlMuhaideb*, Reem BinGhannam, Nourah Alhelal, Shatha Alduheshi, Fatimah Alkhamees, Raghad Alsuhaibani

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1329-1346, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013576

    Abstract Medical data classification (MDC) refers to the application of classification methods on medical datasets. This work focuses on applying a classification task to medical datasets related to specific diseases in order to predict the associated diagnosis or prognosis. To gain experts’ trust, the prediction and the reasoning behind it are equally important. Accordingly, we confine our research to learn rule-based models because they are transparent and comprehensible. One approach to MDC involves the use of metaheuristic (MH) algorithms. Here we report on the development and testing of a novel MH algorithm: IWD-Miner. This algorithm can… More >

  • Open Access


    A Deep-CNN Crowd Counting Model for Enforcing Social Distancing during COVID19 Pandemic: Application to Saudi Arabia’s Public Places

    Salma Kammoun Jarraya1,2,*, Maha Hamdan Alotibi1,3, Manar Salamah Ali1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1315-1328, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.013522

    Abstract With the emergence of the COVID19 virus in late 2019 and the declaration that the virus is a worldwide pandemic, health organizations and governments have begun to implement severe health precautions to reduce the spread of the virus and preserve human lives. The enforcement of social distancing at work environments and public areas is one of these obligatory precautions. Crowd management is one of the effective measures for social distancing. By reducing the social contacts of individuals, the spread of the disease will be immensely reduced. In this paper, a model for crowd counting in… More >

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