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Nanomechanics and Ultrastructure of Bone: A Review

Mohammad Maghsoudi-Ganjeh, Xiaodu Wang*, Xiaowei Zeng*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
* Corresponding Authors: Xiaodu Wang. Email: ; Xiaowei Zeng. Email:

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2020, 125(1), 1-32.

Received 15 June 2020; Accepted 17 August 2020; Issue published 18 September 2020


In this review, a brief presentation is first given to the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of bone. Then, the recent advancements in nanoscale characterization of bone ultrastructure and ingredients are discussed based on an extensive quantity of references in the literature.Moreover, computational and analytical bone mechanics at ultrastructure levels are critically reviewed with the growing body of knowledge in the field. The computational and analytical models are summarized in several categories for ease of understanding bone nanomechanics and their applicability/limitations. This review is expected to provide a well-informed foundation for the researchers interested in interrogating the complex biomechanical response of bone at its nanoscale hierarchy.


Bone ultrastructure; nanoscale; mechanical properties; simulation and modeling; strength; toughness

Cite This Article

Maghsoudi-Ganjeh, M., Wang, X., Zeng, X. (2020). Nanomechanics and Ultrastructure of Bone: A Review. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 125(1), 1–32.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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