Open AccessOpen Access


Developments and Applications of Neutrosophic Theory in Civil Engineering Fields: A Review

Zhenhan Zhang, Jun Ye*

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China

* Corresponding Author: Jun Ye. Email:

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2023, 135(2), 887-916.


Neutrosophic theory can effectively and reasonably express indeterminate, inconsistent, and incomplete information. Since Smarandache proposed the neutrosophic theory in 1998, neutrosophic theory and related research have been developed and applied to many important fields. Indeterminacy and fuzziness are one of the main research issues in the field of civil engineering. Therefore, the neutrosophic theory is very suitable for modeling and applications of civil engineering fields. This review paper mainly describes the recent developments and applications of neutrosophic theory in four important research areas of civil engineering: the neutrosophic decision-making theory and applied methods, the neutrosophic evaluation methods and applications of slope stability, the neutrosophic expressions and analyses of rock joint roughness coefficient, and the neutrosophic structural optimization methods and applications. In terms of these research achievements in the four areas of civil engineering, the neutrosophic theory demonstrates its advantages in dealing with the indeterminate and inconsistent issues in civil engineering and the effectiveness and practicability of existing applied methods. In the future work, the existing research results will be further improved and extended in civil engineering problems. In addition, the neutrosophic theory will also have better application prospects in other fields of civil engineering.


Cite This Article

Zhang, Z., Ye, J. (2023). Developments and Applications of Neutrosophic Theory in Civil Engineering Fields: A Review. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 135(2), 887–916.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 576


  • 327


  • 1


Share Link