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Factor Structure and Longitudinal Invariance of the CES-D across Diverse Residential Backgrounds in Chinese Adolescents

Yanjing Cao1, Chenchen Xu1,2, Qi Li1, Shan Lu1,2,*, Jing Xiao1,*

1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition and Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100048, China
2 Center for Child Development, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100048, China

* Corresponding Authors: Shan Lu. Email: email; Jing Xiao. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Mental Health and Social Development)

International Journal of Mental Health Promotion 2024, 26(4), 261-269. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2024.043729

Abstract

Background: Valid and reliable measures of depressive symptoms are crucial for understanding risk factors, outcomes, and interventions across rural and urban settings. Despite this need, the longitudinal invariance of these measures over time remains understudied. This research explores the structural components of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and examines its consistency across various living environments and temporal stability in a cohort of Chinese teenagers. Method: In the initial phase, 1,042 adolescents furnished demographic details and undertook the CES-D assessment. After a three-month interval, 967 of these participants repeated the CES-D evaluation. The study employed Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to scrutinize the scale’s structural integrity. We investigated factorial invariance by conducting a two-pronged CFA: one comparing urban vs. rural backgrounds, and another contrasting the results from the initial assessment with those from the follow-up. Results: The CES-D demonstrated adequate reliability in both rural and urban high school student samples. The preliminary four-factor model applied to the CES-D demonstrated a good fit with the collected data. Invariance tests, including multigroup analyses comparing rural and urban samples and longitudinal assessments, confirmed the scale’s invariance. Conclusions: The results suggest that the CES-D serves as a reliable instrument for evaluating depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Its applicability is consistent across different living environments and remains stable over time.

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APA Style
Cao, Y., Xu, C., Li, Q., Lu, S., Xiao, J. (2024). Factor structure and longitudinal invariance of the CES-D across diverse residential backgrounds in chinese adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 26(4), 261-269. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2024.043729
Vancouver Style
Cao Y, Xu C, Li Q, Lu S, Xiao J. Factor structure and longitudinal invariance of the CES-D across diverse residential backgrounds in chinese adolescents. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2024;26(4):261-269 https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2024.043729
IEEE Style
Y. Cao, C. Xu, Q. Li, S. Lu, and J. Xiao "Factor Structure and Longitudinal Invariance of the CES-D across Diverse Residential Backgrounds in Chinese Adolescents," Int. J. Ment. Health Promot., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 261-269. 2024. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2024.043729



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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