Open Access iconOpen Access

REVIEW

crossmark

Implications of enolase in the RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity following spinal cord injury

RAMSHA SHAMS1,2, NAREN L. BANIK1,2,3,*, AZIZUL HAQUE1,*

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
3 Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Administration Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401, USA

* Corresponding Authors: NAREN L. BANIK. Email: email; AZIZUL HAQUE. Email: email

BIOCELL 2021, 45(6), 1453-1457. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2021.017659

Abstract

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition characterized by damage to the spinal cord, resulting in loss of function, mobility, and sensation. Although increasingly prevalent in the US, no FDA-approved therapy exists due to the unfortunate complexity of the condition, and the difficulties of SCI may be furthered by the development of SCI-related complications, such as osteoporosis. SCI demonstrates two crucial stages for consideration: the primary stage and the secondary stage. While the primary stage is suggested to be immediate and irreversible, the secondary stage is proposed as a promising window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Enolase, a metabolic enzyme upregulated after SCI, performs non-glycolytic functions, promoting inflammatory events via extracellular degradative actions and increased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serves as a biomarker of functional damage to neurons following SCI, and the inhibition of NSE has been demonstrated to reduce signs of secondary injury of SCI and to ameliorate dysfunction. This Viewpoint article involves enolase activation in the regulation of RANK-RANKL pathway and summarizes succinctly the mechanisms influencing osteoclast-mediated resorption of bone in SCI. Our laboratory proposes that inhibition of enolase activation may reduce SCI-induced inflammatory response and decrease osteoclast activity, limiting the chances of skeletal tissue loss in SCI.

Keywords


Cite This Article

SHAMS, R., BANIK, N. L., HAQUE, A. (2021). Implications of enolase in the RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity following spinal cord injury. BIOCELL, 45(6), 1453–1457.



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1777

    View

  • 838

    Download

  • 0

    Like

Share Link