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Circulating tumor cells: Biological features and survival mechanisms

XIAOFENG LI1, JINYANG ZHENG2, JINFENG ZHU3, XIN HUANG4, HUANHUAN ZHU5, BINGDI CHEN6,*

1 Department of Oncology, Affiliated Quanzhou First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China
2 Department of Pathology, Affiliated Quanzhou First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China
3 Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Quanzhou First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China
4 Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
5 Department of Central Laboratory, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China
6 Shanghai East Hospital, The Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

* Corresponding Author: Bingdi Chen, email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Expert Opinions and Future Trends on Stem Cells, Biomaterials and Growth Factors)

BIOCELL 2023, 47(8), 1771-1781. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2023.028343

Abstract

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are neoplastic cells that are detached from primary tumors and enter circulation. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs are of significance in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. CTC survival in the bloodstream is a limiting step for the development of metastases in distant organs. Recent technological advances, especially in single-cell molecular analyses have uncovered heterogeneous CTC survival mechanisms. Undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increasing stem cell-like properties, and forming cell clusters enable CTCs to adapt to the harsh microenvironment of the circulation. Expressing and releasing several immunosuppressive molecules help CTCs escape from anti-cancer immune mechanisms. This review article summarizes the biological characteristics of CTCs and focuses on the recent understanding of the mechanisms by which CTCs survive in circulation. Additionally, the clinical and therapeutic implications of CTCs are discussed.

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APA Style
LI, X., ZHENG, J., ZHU, J., HUANG, X., ZHU, H. et al. (2023). Circulating tumor cells: biological features and survival mechanisms. BIOCELL, 47(8), 1771-1781. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2023.028343
Vancouver Style
LI X, ZHENG J, ZHU J, HUANG X, ZHU H, CHEN B. Circulating tumor cells: biological features and survival mechanisms. BIOCELL . 2023;47(8):1771-1781 https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2023.028343
IEEE Style
X. LI, J. ZHENG, J. ZHU, X. HUANG, H. ZHU, and B. CHEN "Circulating tumor cells: Biological features and survival mechanisms," BIOCELL , vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1771-1781. 2023. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2023.028343



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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