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3D Non-Fluoroscopic Cryoablation of Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Children: Monocentric Study and Literature Review

Fabrizio Drago*, Irma Battipaglia, Pietro Paolo Tamborrino, Luigina Porco, Camilla Calvieri, Mario Salvatore Russo, Vincenzo Pazzano, Romolo Remoli, Massimo Stefano Silvetti

Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

* Corresponding Author: Fabrizio Drago. Email: email
# European Reference Network for Rare and Low Prevalence Complex Disease of the Heart (ERN GUARD-Heart)

Congenital Heart Disease 2021, 16(6), 561-572.


Background: Cryoablation of accessory pathways (APs) is effective and very safe in children, as previously reported by our group. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the current efficacy of 3D non-fluoroscopic cryoablation of right sided APs in children, comparing results obtained with the Ensite VelocityTM and the more recent Ensite PrecisionTM 3D mapping systems. Methods and Results: From January 2016 to December 2019, 102 pediatric patients [mean age 12.5 ± 2.8, 62 males (61% of total cohort)] with right APs underwent 3D non-fluoroscopic transcatheter cryoablation at our Institution. Fifteen (14.7%) patients had previously undergone catheter ablation. Acute procedural success rate was 95.1% (n = 97). No significant differences were detected in acute success rates achieved with Ensite VelocityTM or Ensite PrecisionTM systems nor between manifest (94%) and concealed APs (100%). No permanent complications occurred. During follow-up (428 ± 286 days, median 396 days [interquartile range 179-713]), 19 patients (19.6%) had recurrences. Recurrences were more frequent for parahissian/anterior APs compared to midseptal/posterior and lateral APs (p = 0.043). Recurrences were not related to the Ensite system used. A redo ablation procedure was attempted in 13 cases, 11 cryoablation and 2 radiofrequency ablations: the former was successful in 10 cases out of 11 (90.9%). Conclusion: 3D cryoablation of right-sided APs is associated with a very high acute success rate with limited use of fluoroscopy, resulting in great benefit to the children. Recurrence rates are not high and patients can be retreated with cryo-energy with higher success rates.


Cite This Article

Drago, F., Battipaglia, I., Tamborrino, P. P., Porco, L., Calvieri, C. et al. (2021). 3D Non-Fluoroscopic Cryoablation of Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Children: Monocentric Study and Literature Review. Congenital Heart Disease, 16(6), 561–572.

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