Open Access iconOpen Access



Social Distancing and Isolation Management Using Machine-to-Machine Technologies to Prevent Pandemics

Muhammad Saad1, Maaz Bin Ahmad1, Muhammad Asif2,*, Khalid Masood2, Mohammad A. Al Ghamdi3

1 College of Computing and Information Sciences, PAF KIET, Karachi, Pakistan
2 Department of Computer Science, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
3 Department of Computer Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Muhammad Asif. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 67(3), 3545-3562.


Social distancing and self-isolation management are crucial preventive measures that can save millions of lives during challenging pandemics of diseases such as the Spanish flu, swine flu, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study describes the comprehensive and effective implementation of the Industrial Internet of Things and machine-to-machine technologies for social distancing and smart self-isolation management. These technologies can help prevent outbreaks of any disease that can disperse widely and develop into a pandemic. Initially, a smart wristband is proposed that incorporates Bluetooth beacon technology to facilitate the tracing and tracking of Bluetooth Low Energy beacon packets for smart contact tracing. Second, the connectivity of the device with Android or iOS applications using long-term evolution technology is realized to achieve mobility. Finally, mathematical formulations are proposed to measure the distance between coordinates in order to detect geo-fencing violations. These formulations are specifically designed for the virtual circular and polygonal boundaries used to restrict suspected or infected persons from trespassing in predetermined areas, e.g., at home, in a hospital, or in an isolation ward. The proposed framework outperforms existing solutions, since it is implemented on a wider scale, provides a range of functionalities, and is cost-effective.


Cite This Article

M. Saad, M. Bin Ahmad, M. Asif, K. Masood and M. A. Al Ghamdi, "Social distancing and isolation management using machine-to-machine technologies to prevent pandemics," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 67, no.3, pp. 3545–3562, 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 2216


  • 1117


  • 0


Share Link