Vol.68, No.2, 2021, pp.1565-1574, doi:10.32604/cmc.2021.016635
General Steganalysis Method of Compressed Speech Under Different Standards
  • Peng Liu1, Songbin Li1,*, Qiandong Yan1, Jingang Wang1, Cheng Zhang2
1 Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
2 The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC3010, Australia
* Corresponding Author: Songbin Li. Email:
Received 07 January 2021; Accepted 17 February 2021; Issue published 13 April 2021
Analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive coding (AbS-LPC) is widely used in a variety of low-bit-rate speech codecs. Most of the current steganalysis methods for AbS-LPC low-bit-rate compressed speech steganography are specifically designed for a specific coding standard or category of steganography methods, and thus lack generalization capability. In this paper, a general steganalysis method for detecting steganographies in low-bit-rate compressed speech under different standards is proposed. First, the code-element matrices corresponding to different coding standards are concatenated to obtain a synthetic code-element matrix, which will be mapped into an intermediate feature representation by utilizing the pre-trained dictionaries. Then, bidirectional long short-term memory is employed to capture long-term contextual correlations. Finally, a code-element affinity attention mechanism is used to capture the global inter-frame context, and a full connection structure is used to generate the prediction result. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and better than the comparison methods for detecting steganographies in cross-standard low-bit-rate compressed speech.
Cross-standard; compressed speech; steganalysis; attention
Cite This Article
P. Liu, S. Li, Q. Yan, J. Wang and C. Zhang, "General steganalysis method of compressed speech under different standards," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.2, pp. 1565–1574, 2021.
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