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Effect of Weather on the Spread of COVID-19 Using Eigenspace Decomposition

Manar A. Alqudah1, Thabet Abdeljawad2,3,4,*, Anwar Zeb5, Izaz Ullah Khan5, Fatma Bozkurt6

1 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Mathematics and General Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, 11586, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medical Research, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan
4 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
5 Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan
6 Department of Mathematics, Erciyes University, Kayseri, 38039, Turkey

* Corresponding Author: Thabet Abdeljawad. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Role of Computer in Modelling & Solving Real-World Problems)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 69(3), 3047-3063.


Since the end of 2019, the world has suffered from a pandemic of the disease called COVID-19. WHO reports show approximately 113 M confirmed cases of infection and 2.5 M deaths. All nations are affected by this nightmare that continues to spread. Widespread fear of this pandemic arose not only from the speed of its transmission: a rapidly changing “normal life” became a fear for everyone. Studies have mainly focused on the spread of the virus, which showed a relative decrease in high temperature, low humidity, and other environmental conditions. Therefore, this study targets the effect of weather in considering the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 for some confirmed cases in Iraq. The eigenspace decomposition technique was used to analyze the effect of weather conditions on the spread of the disease. Our theoretical findings showed that the average number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has cyclic trends related to temperature, humidity, wind speed, and pressure. We supposed that the dynamic spread of COVID-19 exists at a temperature of 130 F. The minimum transmission is at 120 F, while steady behavior occurs at 160 F. On the other hand, during the spread of COVID-19, an increase in the rate of infection was seen at 125% humidity, where the minimum spread was achieved at 200%. Furthermore, wind speed showed the most significant effect on the spread of the virus. The spread decreases with a wind speed of 45 KPH, while an increase in the infectious spread appears at 50 KPH.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Alqudah, M.A., Abdeljawad, T., Zeb, A., Khan, I.U., Bozkurt, F. (2021). Effect of weather on the spread of COVID-19 using eigenspace decomposition. Computers, Materials & Continua, 69(3), 3047-3063.
Vancouver Style
Alqudah MA, Abdeljawad T, Zeb A, Khan IU, Bozkurt F. Effect of weather on the spread of COVID-19 using eigenspace decomposition. Comput Mater Contin. 2021;69(3):3047-3063
IEEE Style
M.A. Alqudah, T. Abdeljawad, A. Zeb, I.U. Khan, and F. Bozkurt "Effect of Weather on the Spread of COVID-19 Using Eigenspace Decomposition," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 3047-3063. 2021.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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