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Intelligent Machine Learning Enabled Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation and Classification

Nora Abdullah Alkhaldi1,*, Hanan T. Halawani2

1 Department of Computer Science, College of Computer Science and Information Technology, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, AlAhsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia
2 College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Najran, 61441, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Nora Abdullah Alkhaldi. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(1), 399-414.


Automated segmentation of blood vessels in retinal fundus images is essential for medical image analysis. The segmentation of retinal vessels is assumed to be essential to the progress of the decision support system for initial analysis and treatment of retinal disease. This article develops a new Grasshopper Optimization with Fuzzy Edge Detection based Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation and Classification (GOFED-RBVSC) model. The proposed GOFED-RBVSC model initially employs contrast enhancement process. Besides, GOAFED approach is employed to detect the edges in the retinal fundus images in which the use of GOA adjusts the membership functions. The ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF) feature extractor is exploited to generate feature vectors. Finally, Improved Conditional Variational Auto Encoder (ICAVE) is utilized for retinal image classification, shows the novelty of the work. The performance validation of the GOFED-RBVSC model is tested using benchmark dataset, and the comparative study highlighted the betterment of the GOFED-RBVSC model over the recent approaches.


Cite This Article

N. A. Alkhaldi and H. T. Halawani, "Intelligent machine learning enabled retinal blood vessel segmentation and classification," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.1, pp. 399–414, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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