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Blockchain-Based Decentralized Authentication Model for IoT-Based E-Learning and Educational Environments

Osama A. Khashan1,*, Sultan Alamri2, Waleed Alomoush3, Mutasem K. Alsmadi4, Samer Atawneh2, Usama Mir5

1 Research and Innovation Centers, Rabdan Academy, P.O. Box 114646, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
2 College of Computing and Informatics, Saudi Electronic University, Riyadh, 13316, Saudi Arabia
3 School of Information Technology, Skyline University College, P.O. Box 1797, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
4 Department of MIS, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Computer Science, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9J3Y1, Canada

* Corresponding Author: Osama A. Khashan. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(2), 3133-3158.


In recent times, technology has advanced significantly and is currently being integrated into educational environments to facilitate distance learning and interaction between learners. Integrating the Internet of Things (IoT) into education can facilitate the teaching and learning process and expand the context in which students learn. Nevertheless, learning data is very sensitive and must be protected when transmitted over the network or stored in data centers. Moreover, the identity and the authenticity of interacting students, instructors, and staff need to be verified to mitigate the impact of attacks. However, most of the current security and authentication schemes are centralized, relying on trusted third-party cloud servers, to facilitate continuous secure communication. In addition, most of these schemes are resource-intensive; thus, security and efficiency issues arise when heterogeneous and resource-limited IoT devices are being used. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based architecture that accurately identifies and authenticates learners and their IoT devices in a decentralized manner and prevents the unauthorized modification of stored learning records in a distributed university network. It allows students and instructors to easily migrate to and join multiple universities within the network using their identity without the need for user re-authentication. The proposed architecture was tested using a simulation tool, and measured to evaluate its performance. The simulation results demonstrate the ability of the proposed architecture to significantly increase the throughput of learning transactions (40%), reduce the communication overhead and response time (26%), improve authentication efficiency (27%), and reduce the IoT power consumption (35%) compared to the centralized authentication mechanisms. In addition, the security analysis proves the effectiveness of the proposed architecture in resisting various attacks and ensuring the security requirements of learning data in the university network.


Cite This Article

O. A. Khashan, S. Alamri, W. Alomoush, M. K. Alsmadi, S. Atawneh et al., "Blockchain-based decentralized authentication model for iot-based e-learning and educational environments," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.2, pp. 3133–3158, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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