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Framework for Effective Utilization of Distributed Scrum in Software Projects

Basit Shahzad1, Wardah Naeem Awan1,*, Fazal-e-Amin2, Ahsanullah Abro3, Muhammad Shoaib4, Sultan Alyahya4

1 Department of Software Engineering, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
2 Department of Software Engineering, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11543, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Computer Science, Sukkur IBA University, Sindh, 65200, Pakistan
4 Department of Information Systems, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11543, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Wardah Naeem Awan. Email: email

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(1), 407-422.


There is an emerging interest in using agile methodologies in Global Software Development (GSD) to get the mutual benefits of both methods. Scrum is currently admired by many development teams as an agile most known methodology and considered adequate for collocated teams. At the same time, stakeholders in GSD are dispersed by geographical, temporal, and socio-cultural distances. Due to the controversial nature of Scrum and GSD, many significant challenges arise that might restrict the use of Scrum in GSD. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) by following Kitchenham guidelines to identify the challenges that limit the use of Scrum in GSD and to explore the mitigation strategies adopted by practitioners to resolve the challenges. To validate our review findings, we conducted an industrial survey of 305 practitioners. The results of our study are consolidated into a research framework. The framework represents current best practices and recommendations to mitigate the identified distributed scrum challenges and is validated by five experts of distributed Scrum. Results of the expert review were found supportive, reflecting that the framework will help the stakeholders deliver sustainable products by effectively mitigating the identified challenges.


Cite This Article

B. Shahzad, W. Naeem Awan, F. , A. Abro, M. Shoaib et al., "Framework for effective utilization of distributed scrum in software projects," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 407–422, 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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