Open Access


A Lightweight Driver Drowsiness Detection System Using 3DCNN With LSTM

Sara A. Alameen*, Areej M. Alhothali
Department of Computer Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Sara A. Alameen. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(1), 895-912.

Received 25 October 2021; Accepted 24 December 2021; Issue published 01 June 2022


Today, fatalities, physical injuries, and significant economic losses occur due to car accidents. Among the leading causes of car accidents is drowsiness behind the wheel, which can affect any driver. Drowsiness and sleepiness often have associated indicators that researchers can use to identify and promptly warn drowsy drivers to avoid potential accidents. This paper proposes a spatiotemporal model for monitoring drowsiness visual indicators from videos. This model depends on integrating a 3D convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM). The 3DCNN-LSTM can analyze long sequences by applying the 3D-CNN to extract spatiotemporal features within adjacent frames. The learned features are then used as the input of the LSTM component for modeling high-level temporal features. In addition, we investigate how the training of the proposed model can be affected by changing the position of the batch normalization (BN) layers in the 3D-CNN units. The BN layer is examined in two different placement settings: before the non-linear activation function and after the non-linear activation function. The study was conducted on two publicly available drowsy drivers datasets named 3MDAD and YawDD. 3MDAD is mainly composed of two synchronized datasets recorded from the frontal and side views of the drivers. We show that the position of the BN layers increases the convergence speed and reduces overfitting on one dataset but not the other. As a result, the model achieves a test detection accuracy of 96%, 93%, and 90% on YawDD, Side-3MDAD, and Front-3MDAD, respectively.


3D-CNN; deep learning; driver drowsiness detection; LSTM; spatiotemporal features

Cite This Article

S. A. Alameen and A. M. Alhothali, "A lightweight driver drowsiness detection system using 3dcnn with lstm," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 895–912, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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