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Efficient Grad-Cam-Based Model for COVID-19 Classification and Detection

Saleh Albahli1,*, Ghulam Nabi Ahmad Hassan Yar2,3
1 Department of Information Technology, College of Computer, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
3 ZR-Tech, 24, Cheadle, Stockport, SK8 3EG, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom
* Corresponding Author: Saleh Albahli. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(3), 2743-2757. https://doi.org/10.32604/csse.2023.024463

Received 18 October 2021; Accepted 03 December 2021; Issue published 01 August 2022

Abstract

Corona Virus (COVID-19) is a novel virus that crossed an animal-human barrier and emerged in Wuhan, China. Until now it has affected more than 119 million people. Detection of COVID-19 is a critical task and due to a large number of patients, a shortage of doctors has occurred for its detection. In this paper, a model has been suggested that not only detects the COVID-19 using X-ray and CT-Scan images but also shows the affected areas. Three classes have been defined; COVID-19, normal, and Pneumonia for X-ray images. For CT-Scan images, 2 classes have been defined COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. For classification purposes, pre-trained models like ResNet50, VGG-16, and VGG19 have been used with some tuning. For detecting the affected areas Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (GradCam) has been used. As the X-rays and ct images are taken at different intensities, so the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) has been applied to see the effect on the training of the models. As a result of these experiments, we achieved a maximum validation accuracy of 88.10% with a training accuracy of 88.48% for CT-Scan images using the ResNet50 model. While for X-ray images we achieved a maximum validation accuracy of 97.31% with a training accuracy of 95.64% using the VGG16 model.

Keywords

Convolutional neural networks (CNN); COVID-19; pre-trained models; CLAHE; Grad-Cam; X-ray; data augmentation

Cite This Article

S. Albahli and G. N. Ahmad Hassan Yar, "Efficient grad-cam-based model for covid-19 classification and detection," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.3, pp. 2743–2757, 2023.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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