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Deep Learning-Based Model for Defect Detection and Localization on Photovoltaic Panels

S. Prabhakaran1,*, R. Annie Uthra1, J. Preetharoselyn2
1 Department of Computational Intelligence, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chengalpattu, 603203, India
2 Department of Electrical Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chengalpattu, 603203, India
* Corresponding Author: S. Prabhakaran. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 44(3), 2683-2700.

Received 21 February 2022; Accepted 12 April 2022; Issue published 01 August 2022


The Problem of Photovoltaic (PV) defects detection and classification has been well studied. Several techniques exist in identifying the defects and localizing them in PV panels that use various features, but suffer to achieve higher performance. An efficient Real-Time Multi Variant Deep learning Model (RMVDM) is presented in this article to handle this issue. The method considers different defects like a spotlight, crack, dust, and micro-cracks to detect the defects as well as localizes the defects. The image data set given has been preprocessed by applying the Region-Based Histogram Approximation (RHA) algorithm. The preprocessed images are applied with Gray Scale Quantization Algorithm (GSQA) to extract the features. Extracted features are trained with a Multi Variant Deep learning model where the model trained with a number of layers belongs to different classes of neurons. Each class neuron has been designed to measure Defect Class Support (DCS). At the test phase, the input image has been applied with different operations, and the features extracted passed through the model trained. The output layer returns a number of DCS values using which the method identifies the class of defect and localizes the defect in the image. Further, the method uses the Higher-Order Texture Localization (HOTL) technique in localizing the defect. The proposed model produces efficient results with around 97% in defect detection and localization with higher accuracy and less time complexity.


Photovoltaic systems; deep learning; defect detection; classification; localization

Cite This Article

S. Prabhakaran, R. Annie Uthra and J. Preetharoselyn, "Deep learning-based model for defect detection and localization on photovoltaic panels," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 44, no.3, pp. 2683–2700, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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