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Impact of Flow Rate in Integration with Solar Radiation on Color and COD Removal in Dye Contaminated Textile Industry Wastewater: Optimization Study

Pradeep K. Majhi1, Rifat Azam1, Richa Kothari2,*, Naveen Kumar Arora1, V. V. Tyagi3
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, 226025, U.P., India
2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Central University of Jammu, Rahya-Suchani, Bagla, Samba, 181143, J&K, India
3 School of Energy Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, 182320, J&K, India
* Corresponding Author: Richa Kothari. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)

Energy Engineering 2022, 119(1), 419-427.

Received 16 April 2021; Accepted 13 August 2021; Issue published 22 November 2021


Dyes are an integral part of the dying industry and have significantly resulted in environmental pollution by altering the standard water quality after their discharge into the water bodies. The culprits behind the altered water quality are the pretreatment chemicals used during dying manufacturing processes. Various advanced treatment methods using conventional and advanced treatment options including solar energy have been put forth by researchers for the treatment of the dying effluents but, these methods have not proved significantly considerable. Therefore, the present study intends to check the efficiency of solar parabolic trough collector for treating the dying effluents in terms of color and COD. However, other wastewater parameters (BOD, nitrate and phosphate) have also been considered for this experimental analysis. Four standard flow rates (0.5, 1.3, 1.95 and 2.6 L/M) were maintained during the experiment for six hours at solar intensity (849.3 ± 21.2 W/m2) and the optimized flow rate (1.95 L/M) was detected and considered for further study during the present experiment. The color concentration showed a significant reduction (≥76.4%) by treatment with the designed solar reactor. Similar significant results were also noticed in terms of COD (79%). In this context, the current experimental study provides ideas on the decolorization and COD reduction efficiency with optimal flow rate in terms of cost-effectiveness with designed experimental reactor which could be further used and implemented for advanced scientific purposes.


Dye industry effluents; decolorization; renewable energy-based treatment; lab-scale experiment

Cite This Article

Majhi, P. K., Azam, R., Kothari, R., Arora, N. K., Tyagi, V. V. (2022). Impact of Flow Rate in Integration with Solar Radiation on Color and COD Removal in Dye Contaminated Textile Industry Wastewater: Optimization Study. Energy Engineering, 119(1), 419–427.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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