Open Access


Energy and Life Cycle Assessment of Zinc/Water Nanofluid Based Photovoltaic Thermal System

Junaid Khan, Rashid Ali, Muzammil Zubair, Syed Mohd Yahya*
SEARL Laboratory, Department of Mechancial Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India
* Corresponding Author: Syed Mohd Yahya. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)

Energy Engineering 2022, 119(2), 827-846.

Received 27 February 2021; Accepted 10 May 2021; Issue published 24 January 2022


Cooling the PV surface in a Photovoltaic Thermal system is a pivotal operational aspect to be taken into account to achieve optimized values of performance parameters in a Photovoltaic Thermal System. The experimental design used in this study facilitates the flow of varying concentrations of Zn-water nanofluid in serpentine copper tubing installed at the rear of the PV panel thereby preventing the PV surface temperature from increasing beyond the threshold value at which a decrease in electrical efficiency starts to occur. This fusion of solar thermal with PV devices leads to better electrical and thermal efficiency values resulting in decreased cell degradation over time and maximization of the lifespan of the PV module and the energy output from the PV system. Due to the superior thermal heat properties of nanofluids, their usage in such systems has become increasingly widespread. Life cycle metrics which include Energy Payback period, Energy Production Factor and life cycle conversion efficiency were evaluated for the PVT system by exhaustively chalking fundamental parameters such as embodied energy of the PVT setup and the total energy output from the PVT system. This research aims to be a major milestone in the evolutionary journey of Photovoltaic Thermal modules by guiding the engineers working on the theory, design and implementation of PVT systems towards its economic feasibility, environmental impact and energy sustainability.


Photovoltaic thermal system; nanofluids; performance parameters; life cycle assessment

Cite This Article

Khan, J., Ali, R., Zubair, M., Yahya, S. M. (2022). Energy and Life Cycle Assessment of Zinc/Water Nanofluid Based Photovoltaic Thermal System. Energy Engineering, 119(2), 827–846.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 760


  • 473


  • 0


Share Link

WeChat scan