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Secure Image Authentication Using Watermarking and Blockchain

Alsehli Abrar1, Wadood Abdul1,*, Sanaa Ghouzali2

1 Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computer and Information Sciences King Saud University 11543 Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Information Technology Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences
King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Wadood Abdul. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Soft Computing Methods for Innovative Software Practices)

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2021, 28(2), 577-591.


Image authentication is an important field that employs many different approaches and has several significant applications. In the proposed approach, we used a combination of two techniques to achieve authentication. Image watermarking is one of the techniques that has been used in many studies but the authentication field still needs to be studied. Blockchain technology is a relatively new technology that has significant research potential related to image authentication. The watermark is embedded into the third-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in the middle frequency regions to achieve security and imperceptibility goals. Peak signal-to-noise ratio PSNR, structural similarity matrix (SSIM), normalized correlation coefficient (NCC), and bit error rate (BER) are used to measure the performance of image watermarking. We used blockchain technology to avoid involving a trusted third party for authentication. Secure Hash Algorithm 256 (SHA-256) is applied on the watermark to save it into the blockchain. The watermark is encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and embedded into the image. The proposed method is tested on the USP SICI database and the MedPix medical image database. Ethereum blockchain is used to provide security, anonymity, and integrity of data with no third-party intervention. The proposed solution demonstrates enhanced security for image authentication compared with the state-of-the-art.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Abrar, A., Abdul, W., Ghouzali, S. (2021). Secure image authentication using watermarking and blockchain. Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, 28(2), 577-591.
Vancouver Style
Abrar A, Abdul W, Ghouzali S. Secure image authentication using watermarking and blockchain. Intell Automat Soft Comput . 2021;28(2):577-591
IEEE Style
A. Abrar, W. Abdul, and S. Ghouzali "Secure Image Authentication Using Watermarking and Blockchain," Intell. Automat. Soft Comput. , vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 577-591. 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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