Open Access iconOpen Access



A Modelling and Scheduling Tool for Crowd Movement in Complex Network

Emad Felemban1, Faizan Ur Rehman2,*, Akhlaq Ahmad2, Muhamad Felemban3

1 College of Computing and Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2 Institute of Consulting Research and Studies, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
3 Computer Engineering Department, King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Faizan Ur Rehman. Email: email

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2022, 31(3), 1361-1375.


Managing events pose a unique challenge to the stakeholders and authorities to control the crowd in all three phases of the event (pre, during and post), ensuring crowd safety. One of the fundamental keys to provide crowd safety is to consider the mobility infrastructure hosting the crowd, i.e., routes, areas, entrances and exits. During Hajj, where millions of pilgrims worldwide fulfil the annual event’s rites, mina encampment incorporates pilgrims performing recurring stoning ritual conducted over multi-level Jamarat bridge. Pilgrims mobility through the available complex road network, to and back from the Jamarat bridge, forces upon authorities in charge to set out mobility plans which may require off and on modification as per attendees’ preferences and organizational needs. This paper presents a basis for mathematical modelling of pilgrims’ mobility pattern in Mina by considering available corridors’ capacity, limited times, group size restrictions, and road segment connectivity. The developed mathematical model can generate an efficient schedule to control the flow through these corridors, assess crowd management risks when corridors’ capacity is affected by any emergency, and scientifically estimate each corridor’s maximum allowable occupants


Cite This Article

E. Felemban, F. Ur Rehman, A. Ahmad and M. Felemban, "A modelling and scheduling tool for crowd movement in complex network," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 31, no.3, pp. 1361–1375, 2022.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1746


  • 828


  • 0


Share Link